GAZ 63

Soviet Union
Light 4x4 Truck (1948-68) - 474,464 built
The GAZ 63 was a 4x4 miitary variant of the GAZ-51 based on the WW2 lend-leased stuebaker truck. The GAZ-63 was produced until 1968 to c474,000 vehicles in USSR alone. It was declined inti 18 versions, exported and used by China (licence), Hungary, Poland (licence), Romania, Syria and Ukraine. Some are still in ciculation today.

About the GAZ-63

Development

Its start on the assembly line coincided with the beginning of the Cold War, which threatened to turn hot. And he finished his production journey exactly 20 years later - in the year when Soviet tanks entered Prague. But the world war, fortunately, did not break out either in these two decades or later. Probably, this is also why the GAZ-63 can be found “alive” even today...

It has never been a secret that all-wheel drive vehicles in the USSR were created primarily for the army. And at the end of the forties, when yesterday’s allies became potential adversaries, the country urgently needed new military vehicles, because the main fleet of all-wheel drive vehicles of the Soviet army during the Great Patriotic War were American models. However, our factories had the design groundwork. At Gorkovsky, in particular, an all-wheel drive truck was designed before the war.

In the second half of the thirties of the last century, the truck was created unified with the GAZ-11-51, which was supposed to replace the outdated GAZ-MM lorry in production. The model, like other new products from Soviet factories, was planned to be put on the assembly line in 1942. Based on the GAZ11-51, the all-wheel drive GAZ-63 and its version with a shortened wheelbase, the GAZ-62, were designed. The prototype appeared back in 1939–1940. Three-axle models with indexes 33 and 34 were also developed. The leading designer of the projects was the author of many models with all driving axes P.A. Grachev.

Work on the trucks that were to be put on the assembly line after the war continued as soon as the Germans were driven away from Moscow. When fine-tuning the GAZ63, Gorky engineers obviously truckefully studied the Lend-Lease Chevrolet G-7107. Such trucks, close to the 63rd in layout, were assembled at GAZ during the war. However, the American version had a lower load capacity and dual-slope wheels at the rear.

In 1943, a sample of the GAZ-63 appeared with a slightly modified American Studebaker cabin. By this time, P.I. became the leading designer of the 63rd. Muzyukin is, by the way, the chief designer of UAZ in the future. The final version of the GAZ-51 and GAZ-63 cabins was created not without the influence of the same Studebaker, but the Soviet cabin with rounded wings and large headlights built into them was noticeably more modern. Developments on the three-axle GAZ-33 were transferred to Moscow, where they were used to create the ZIS151. The Gorky residents simply did not have a powerful enough engine for such a truck.

Well, the GAZ-63, as usual, was shown in the Kremlin in 1945, among other trucks. True, production was slightly delayed. GAZ-51 entered production in 1946. Large-scale production of the all-wheel drive truck began on September 31, 1948. Soviet reference books indicated 1946 for a long time. But at this time we could only talk about the so-called zero series, the vehicles of which were subject to controlled operation. The designers received the 63rd Stalin Prize. By the way, in those years bonuses were given out to engineers, including automotive ones, quite often. And there was a reason...

Final Vehicle


GAZ-63 production

According to modern terminology, the GAZ-63 can even be considered a truckgo-passenger vehicle. In the body with high sides there were folding benches on the sides. You had to have the stamina of a soldier or feel the most urgent need to go somewhere in order to sit for a long time in the back of this rigid (with spring suspension) bouncy truck. But anything is better than crossing the abysses of the Soviet off-road on foot!

According to the passport, the load capacity of the GAZ63 on asphalt was 2000 kg, on the ground - 1500 kg. But who counted them, these kilograms, somewhere on a distant collective farm or a timber industry enterprise forgotten by the regional committee authorities? And the truck could also pull a trailer weighing up to 2000 kg - read: a light gun.

The truck's maneuverability was excellent! With all single wheels, it had almost identical front and rear tracks, plus ground clearance, depending on the tires, amounting to 270–280 mm, and approach and departure angles of 48° and 32°, respectively. In addition, there was a transfer case with a reduction gear (1.96). Since the gear ratio of the first stage of the gearbox was 6.40, you could even plow the all-wheel drive “lawn” if you wanted (of course, adding ballast to the body). There was also a version of the GAZ-63A - with a winch. In general, in the right hands, the 63rd could drive where it was sometimes strucky to go.

Just the engine thrust would be enough! The GAZ-63 had a GAZ-51 unit - a descendant of the pre-war GAZ-11, copied from the Dodge D5. By the way, this engine was produced until the end of the 80s! At 63 it developed only 70 hp. at 2800 rpm and 205 Nm at 1500–1700 rpm. The truck was only capable of a maximum speed of 65 km/h (children's speed in modern times). However, this indicator is, of course, not the main one for such a machine. Much more important for Soviet realities is that thanks to the additional (relative to the GAZ-51) gas tank, the A-66 gasoline supply (yes, there was one!) was 195 liters. The truck, consuming on average 25–29 liters per 100 km, could travel approximately 650 km without refueling.

But the driver also had to match the truck. There is very little space between the steering wheel and a simple sofa. Vacuum-driven windshield wipers worked slower the faster the truck was traveling. At first, the cabin did not even have a heater; it appeared only in 1952. It’s even somehow inconvenient to talk about the absence of power steering and brakes in relation to this soldier-like ascetic truck.

But the most important disease of a tall, narrow-gauge vehicle was poor stability. The tendency to rollover at high speeds can be forgiven - not its modes. But even off-road, especially on slopes, the driver had to be alert. However, that’s why he is a driver, and not just a user. From a person who was entrusted with such a serious truck (and who was also taught to patch the chamber, “shake up” the truckburetor, or even jam the piston), it is logical to expect skills in overcoming off-road conditions.

Of course, the plant knew about the lack of stability. Therefore, prototypes with a wider track and a different cabin were designed and built. But the modernized truck was not put into production. All efforts and resources were directed towards a fundamentally new model - GAZ-66. In the meantime, the 63rd gave birth to several, including very interesting, modifications. Even during the war, P.A. Grachev designed a wheeled self-propelled gun, unified in chassis with the 63rd GAZ-68 (aka SU 63). But this model did not go into production either. In contrast, by the way, to the BTR-40 armored personnel truckrier, many of its components and assemblies were also common to those used on the GAZ-63.

And there were other, practically civilian, modifications: the GAZ-63P truck tractor, designed for a semi-trailer weighing up to 6000 kg, and its version 63D - with a power take-off for a dump semi-trailer. Both trucks had dual-slope rear wheels. Several versions of fire engines, tanks for transporting fuel, oil and milk, and ambulance vans were built on the GAZ-63 chassis. The Kurgan Bus Plant built a small number of KAVZ-663 - all-wheel drive buses on the GAZ-63 chassis, with a body similar to the Gorky GZA-651 and similar vehicles produced by many large and small factories in the USSR. Among the prototypes based on the GAZ-63 were versions with a soft roof for airborne troops, and a half-track prototype.

Until 1968, when the 63rd gave way to the 66th on the assembly line, 474,464 trucks were produced. For a long time they met on the roads, and sometimes on city streets. Of course, despite the strength and simplicity of the design, over the years there have been fewer and fewer tall trucks with “toothy” tires. But then, already in the 80s, 63 began to “float up” from army warehouses - well-groomed and in good condition. As a rule, it is these “demobilized” copies that belong today to fans of Soviet retro. The lower-valve “sixes” are not at all young, but are still ready to go where they cannot go without special training, the “lawns” are still purring in the same way - in a fighting manner. Almost like in the years of their youth, when the 63, together with the whole country, were preparing for a big war. Which, fortunately, never started.

Other tech specifics

The GAZ-63 had a frame structure, all-wheel drive with a switchable front axle (two driveshafts to the drive axles and an intermediate one between the gearbox and transfer case), short overhangs and single wheels with adjustable internal pressure.

Car tires measuring 280–457 mm made it possible to briefly reduce the pressure to 0.7 kg/cm2 when driving on virgin snow or wetlands. In this case, the vehicle speed should not exceed 10 km/h. The service life of the tires during such driving did not exceed 150 km (when operating with a normal pressure of 2.8 kg/cm2, the warranty mileage of the tires is 10 thousand km). The compressor, of course, was missing.

To inflate tires in the field, a device was used that was screwed into the engine instead of one of the spark plugs. The engine started and ran on five cylinders, the piston of one of the cylinders pumped air into the tires. You should not think that a gasoline-air mixture entered the tires. The inlet air valve of the device had significantly less resistance than the intake manifold and carburetor with an inertia-oil air cleaner.

Variants


GAZ-63 specialized NBC chemical cleansing vehicle


GAZ-63 pontoon truck


Tanker variant

The GAZ-63 was exported to socialist and, "developing countries". They were produced under Soviet license in North Korea and China. In the DPRK the truck was called “Sungri-61” (“victory”). In the People's Republic of China, 63 were made under the name “Yuejin NJ230”. They differed in many ways from the original. The North Korea variant for example had lights integrated into a more stremaling hood. The Initial Chinese version was simplified with straight angle cabin and mufflers.

    Main variants

  • GAZ-63A: Version with front-mounted winch.
  • GAZ-63U/AU: Export versions
  • GAZ-63D: Tractor-trailer, with dual rear wheels.
  • GAZ-63E: Bus chassis (PAZ-659 and PAZ-663)
  • GAZ-63EU: Modernized Export version of the 63E
  • GAZ-63P: Tractor-trailer with dual rear wheels but no PTO as on GAZ-63D.
  • GAZ-63PU: Export version of the latter
  • GAZ-63Ye: Version with shielded electrical equipment.
  • GAZ-63AYe: Same with front-mounted winch.
  • GAZ-63YeU: Export version of GAZ-63Ye
  • Prototypes

  • GAZ-63V: Prototype, modernized with larger wheels, lowered loading platform, parking brake, shielded electrical equipment, rear turn signals, coolant overheat warning indicator.
  • GAZ-63AV: same but front-mounted winch, canvas topped cab, all metal body with stretcher mounts, canvas loading compartment cover, new instrument panel, unshielded electrical equipment.
  • GAZ-66: Prototype improved GAZ-63 with BRDM-1 wxles and wheels, more modern cab designed by B.B. Lebedev (also for the GAZ-52).
  • GAZ-66A: Prototype replacement with GAZ-52F elemants, but same loading platform, transfer case and winch. Axles from GAZ-63V, wheels from the BAV 485.
  • GAZ-66P: Prototype tractor-trailer (based on AZ-66A).

Operators

Soviet GAZ-63
Soviet GAZ-63 damaged after an explosion, Prague Spring 1968

Egyptian GAZ-63
Egyptian GAZ-63 across the Suez canal, 1973 offensive

  • China
  • Hungary
  • Egypt (most probable)
  • Poland
  • Romania
  • North Korea
  • Syria
  • Ukraine
  • USSR
Specs GAZ-63
Dimensions LWH :5,525 x 2,200 x 2,245m - Wheelbase 3,300m
Total weight, curb/full:3,200/5,350 tons
Tires :9.75–18 (from the mid-1950s – 10.00–18)
Tracks :1588 front, 1600 rear
Ground clearance :27 cm (1 in)
Crew :2+8
Propulsion:6 cyl. GAZ 3485 cm3 70hp/51.5 comp. ratio, 2800 rpm, Tq Nm 205 1500–1700rpm
Transmission:Gearbox Mechanical 4-speed, transfer case 2-speed
Suspensions:All-wheel drive type, leaf springs
Brakes:Disc ft and rear, hydraulic
Speed :65 km/h (30 mph)
Range (road/off road) :500 Miles, consumpt. 1L/100 km at 40 km/h
Payload :2000 kgs (on ground – 1500)
ProductionCirca 474,000

Sources

museum.gaz.ru/
51 on en.wikipedia.org
63 on ru.wikipedia.org
off-road-drive.ru
engine.aviaport.ru
www.gaz20.spb.ru
off-road-drive.ru
autoar.org
books.google.fr/
ru.wikipedia.org
enisovets.ru/gaz/gazpages/gaz51v
denisovets.ru/gaz/gazpages/gaz51u
zr.ru/
CC photos
Author's Renditions

GAZ-63, as built

GAZ-63 with tarpaulin

GAZ-63A, 1980s

BM-14/17 RL truck variant

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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

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-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War & Modern Vehicles

Section pending completion.
BAV-485 * MAZ-543 * GAZ 46 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * GAZ 51 * GAZ 63* ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-151 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-157/PR-11M * ZIL-6 * ZIL-6


* * * * Praga V3S * Tatra 813
Ford G398 * Borgward BE3000 * Henschel HS 115 * Hanomag AL 28 * Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Mercedes LG 315/46 * Magirus-Deutz 170 * Magirus-Deutz 232 * Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 * Magirus-Deutz A 6500 * MAN KAT-1 * SLT 50 Elefant TT * Liebherr 8x8 GLW * MAN TGM Mil 18 4x4 * Liebherr 4x4 FKL * MAN 630 L2 * Mercedes LA * Unimog 404 2.5 standard * DKW Munga (1956) * Mercedes G-class * Volkswagen Type 181 (1968) * Volkswagen Iltis (1978) * MAN LX Tactical Trucks * M3 Amphibious Rig
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8

Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK/MK * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL

IFA G5

Nissan 2.5 Truck
Jiefang CA10 * Jiefang CA30
* * Hitachi Type 73 artillery tractor (1974) * Toyota Type 73 * Isuzu HST * Nissan Patrol * Mitsubishi Type 73 * Toyota Land Cruiser *
Beijing BJ212 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * Wanshan W-2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | Renault GBC 180 | Renault Kerax* | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scania TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | Arquus Trapper VT4 | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Modern Trucks

Section pending completion.

India:

Tatra Prithvi | Ashok-Leyland Agni II TEL

Italy:

Iveco ACTL

Romania:

AMT 25, AMT 950, DAC, Roman, Dacia Duster.

Indonesia:

Rantis P6 ATAV

Russia:

UAZ Esaul * Kamaz 6560 * Pantsir S1

France:

Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | Renault GBC 180 | Renault Kerax | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scanian TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Germany:

Mercedes 250GD Wolf | Mercedes Wolf SSA | Mercedes G300 Greenliner | VW T3/T4/T6 van | BWM G650 GS | BMW F850 GS | BMW R1150 RT | BMW R1200 RT | KTM 400LS-E BdW | LIV(SO) Serval | German quads | Faun LST50-3 Elefant | Faun STL56 Franziska | Faun SLT Mammut | RMT HX81 | SAANH 70T | Mercedes Unimog U3/4/5000 | Mercedes Zetros | MAN KAT1 | RMT Multi 2 | RMT WLS 6x6 | RMT UTF WLKS 8x8 | | MAN TGS 8x4 | MAN TGS 6x4 | MAN RMMV TGA | Mercedes Atego | Mercedes Axor | EWK M3 Amph.Rig | Liebherr FKL | Liebherr FKM | T.Faun FKS ATF 30-2 | T.Faun FKS ATF 70-4 | T.Faun FKS ATF 100-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 110-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 120-5 Obelix | Steinbrock 2.5 Y4 | Herbst-Smag Orion V | Konecrane SMV 2216 TC3 | Ahlmann AS1600 | Liebherr 574 | MAN Cobra Radar | Liebherr LTM 1050

Netherlands:

Defenture Mammoth | to come | placeholder | MLC-70 WGMST

Turkey:

United Kingdom:

RWMIK land rover | Toyota Jankel Al-Thalab | Sky Sabre | Alvis Unipower | land Rover Wolf | Land Rover Defender BFA | Alvis Supacat ATMP | Marshall Gasket 3 | MAN SV (Mark I-III)

USA:

Interim Fast Attack Vehicle | M1161 Growler | Boeing Phantom Badger | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |