BAV-485 (1952)

Soviet trucks Amphibious Truck 1949-1962

The BAV-485 was the Soviet standard amphibious truck, a faithful copy of the WW2 famous US-made DUKW made by GMC and generously provided to the Soviet Union via lend-lease. It was developed from 1949, produced from 1952 to 1962 by successive plants, and widely distributed between motorized infantry units for the crossing or rivers, as well as the Soviet Marines. Maintained into service until the 1970s, it was replaced by the tracked PTS. It is relevant to this site and not tank-afv.com due to its lack of armour protection.

The Soviet DUKW

Like the original, the BAV (the acronym stands for "big car waterfowl" or something equivalent) was designed as large floating amphibious made for the transportation and crossing of personnel, vehicles, artillery systems and materiel across wide water barriers. It was used for assaulting through rivers in the first and second waves and for amphibious assaults from landing ships. The BAV-485's prototpe was ready in 1949 and production greenlighted in 1952, and it was produced by successive manufacturers until 1962.

Origins

During the Second World War, the Soviet Army deployed most of their US-provided GMC DUKW 353 to cross the rivers Svir and Daugava, during the Vistula-Oder operation. They were provided by lend-lease from 1944, with a total delivered 589. Their use showed high efficiency in offensive operations, since it was possible to cross rivers without delays, transferring soldiers and equipment to the other side in a very short span of time while not waiting for the construction of pontoon or temporary bridges, under enemy fire.


Original DUKW used by Rokossosvsky's 2nd Belorussian front in January 1945

Convinced of the usefulness of type of vehicle, the State Defense Committee as part of the post-war technical re-equipment of the Soviet Army, issued a tactical and technical requirement (TTZ) for the USSR Ministry of the Automotive Industry. The goal was to develop a local analogue of the American GMC DUKW-353 with available chassis. The developed amphibious truck was named "BAV", an acronym that remained unique in Red Army nomenclature. The following number was from the design bureau at ZIS.

Initially, it was planned to transfer development of the prototype to the 1st State Automobile Plant I.V. Stalin, but due to and intense workload, between the ZIS-150, ZIS-151, BTR-152 and other projects, it was proposed to entrust the Dnepropetrovsk Automobile Plant (DAZ) instead.

Development at DAZ

Engineers at DAZ, started work on the design by the end of 1948. After studying two American GMC DUKW-353, analyzing and trialling them, and then disassembling the vehicle entirely for a possible production tooling, it was decided to use part of these, replicated locally, coupled with sub-systems from the GAZ-63 and ZIS-151, but also the BTR-152 armored personnel carrier, the remainder being designed and purpose-built. By using that many components "from the shelf", they expected to deliver quickly a production model that could be cheapley produced and maintained.

DAZ working team included chief designer V. A. Grachev, lead designer L. A. Berlin, internal combustion engine designer S. I. Tyazhelnikov, transmission designer A. Kh. Lefarov, body designers B. T. Komarevsky and S. S. Kiselev. Yu. S. Paleev was responsible for the tests. For experimental tests, two prototypes were built.

The first prototype called "DAZ-485 BAV" was ready for trials by August 1950, although a mockup was made in 1949 and the first non-working prototype. The very first tests were done under the control of chief designer Vitaly Andreyevich Grachev, which at night crossed the Dnieper. These tests were rated as "excellent". By September 1950, the second prototype was ready and tested from July to September 1950 with the 1st one, undergoing a gruelling full cycle of factory trials, on land at on river, even at sea with the following stages:

-Trial run between Dnepropetrovsk and Zaporozhye and long swims along the Dnieper
-23-25 September run between Dnepropetrovsk and Zhdanov (Mariupol) and also Melitopol-Nikopol-Dnepropetrovsk
-26-30 September a run to Odessa via Nikolaev
-By October 1950 on Kakhovka-Evpatoria-Yalta-Feodosia-Kerch-Taman-Anapa-Temryuk and back.
By the spring of 1951, interdepartmental tests near Vyborg and Yukholonmyaki. Tests in the Crimea were marred by a storm during the crossing of the Kerch Strait, left alone as no accompanying boats were present; Driver Grachev managed to cross the strait, despite the presence of sea mines in the area, as it was not completely cleared of mines, but also wrecks of sunken ships. It arrived safely. According to April 1951 tests, B. T. Komarevsky, G. M. Grigoriev, G. V. Safronov, I. I. Thor, and V. A. Grachev were awarded the Stalin Prize while the BAV was greenlighted for mass production.

Production

In 1951, the BAV 485 was put into service, and at the DAZ factory a first small serie was created of 10 vehicle for further evaluation as a pre-production batch, while tooling and preparing the mass-production as the "DAZ-485". However by May 9, 1951 a Decree of the Council of Ministers No.1528-768 had the new R-1 nuclear warhead launch vehicle own production ordered instead at the factory. By July 1951, Grachev, and most designers and engineers of DAZ were transferred to the 1st State Automobile Plant I.V. Stalin (ZIS) for mass production, as the two prototypes and all the documentation. Grachev moved to Moscow with his family to continue the development of the vehicle.

Vitaly Andreevich was appointed as his Deputy Chief Designer. By August 1951, the special bureau "485" was formed at ZIS, giving its name to the vehicle. Sections for production of parts and assemblies were organized in all workshops and to speed it up, it was decided to have hulls made at plant No.586 (former DAZ). By July 1952, the first of the four serial vehicles rolled off the assembly line as ZIS-485. Until the end of 1952, 100 were produced, with hulls manufactured at plant No.586. From 1953 they were distributed to several units for operational tests. By 1953, 270 had been delivered but at that stage, Grachev moved to another project and was replaced by S. T. Deev as lead designer.

By October-November 1953, two random vehicles were selected for reliability and standard compliance tests by state official, carried out along the route Moscow-Stalingrad-Astrakhan-Grozny-Baku-Tbilisi-Batumi-Krasnodar-Novorossiysk-Crimea-Odessa-Kiev-Minsk and back to Moscow or circa 10,000 km. Swimming testswere performed on the Volga, Kuban and Dniester. They were all considered successful so ZIL received another go-ahead for urther production without change. By 1954, annual production was of 285 vehicles, and some received a 12.7 mm DSHK heavy anti-aircraft machine gun, mounted in front of the cargo hold. This was not common though, but resembled the cal.50 used on the original DUKW. By June 26, 1956, by decree of the Central Committee and Council of Ministers No.865, ZIS changed its name to ZIL and the BAV-485 was produced as "ZIL-485".

Successive Production runs and Variants

The BAV 485 was produced over a decade (1952-62) at the Dnepropetrovsk Automobile Plant from 1949 to 1951 under the designation DAZ-485 and prototypes
The 1st State Automobile Plant I.V. Stalin from 1952 to 1956 under the designation of ZIS-485 (first serial production)
The Moscow (twice the Order of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner of Labor) Automobile Plant I. A. Likhachev "from 1956 to 1959 under the designation ZIL-485 (second serial production);
The Bryansk Automobile Plant from 1960 to 1962 under the designation ZIL-485A (BAZ-485) which was third serial production.

ZIL-485A

With enough experience return from active units, compiled reports showed several ways of improvements to the vehicle. The design of an improved model soon absorbed all the developments teams from the end of 1956. In April 1957, two prototypes of the new version were assembled as "BAV 485A". From May to November 1957, they were tested on land and water and by September 1958, mass production as the ZIL-485A was approved. By mid-1959, due to the workload at Moskow's ZIL plant, it was decided to transfer it to the Bryansk Automobile Plant (BAZ). By December 30, 1959, the ZIL model rolled off the assembly line, with a total of 2005 being delivered at this plant. The first vehicles made by BAZ began were accepted by January 10, 1960, also as "ZIL-485A" to avoid confusion and became the BAZ brand was kept secret. Only 24 left BAZ, the last one at the end of 1962.

ZIL-485B

This was further development, with its first prototype appearing in January 1960, with a new 5-speed synchromesh gearbox and longer front springs, as well as an upgraded single plate clutch, a reinforced frame, a new power take-off and a new heat exchanger. However mostly because of cost reasons, these proposed modification were not greenlighted for serial production and to replace the ZIL-485A, the amphibious trawler UROM-2 was developed, used by fishing brigades and produced at a very limited pace.

By the early 1970s, the Soviet army had received all its BAV-485s but the strong need for NBC protection made the model obsolete. Production was discontinued, the Bryansk plant turned to other models. In the 1970s, a four-axle transporter GAZ-44 was built at Gorky, showing much better payload capacity during tests on the Dnepropetrovsk-Moscow-Bryansk road. However it was not greenlighted for mass production either, and the BAV program was terminated. No true replacement was done (in wheeled form) but the tracked PTS, judged way better in all areas.
  • DAZ-485: 1952 Initial base model, 10 preserie vehicles
  • ZIS-485: 1952-56 270 made
  • ZIL-485: 1956-59 Same (factory name change), circa 1,000 made
  • ZIL-485A: 1958, Improved version, 2005 made
  • ZIL-485B: 1959, New gearbox and other modifications, prototype only.
  • BAZ(ZIL)485: 1960-62, 24 made
  • UROM-2: Derivative of the ZIL-485B for civilian service, perhaps 20-30 built.
  • GAZ-44: 1972 new, better amphibious 4x4 truck by Gorky Plant, prototypes only.

Design of the BAV-485





Hull and equipments

The hull design was similar to that of the GMC DUKW-353, precise to the bolt, and completely watertight in welded steel. It was 8.6 m long, 2.07 m in beam and 2.64 m heigh, weighting 7.15 tons, with a cargo and crew up to nine tons in working order.

Its Hood was called the deck and the cabin, flooring with floorboards made of bakelit and plywood, with storage areas under the deckhouse floorboards and cargo platform hold. Among other equipments, the vehicle was given a hand pump, lifebuoy hook fixed on deck to be usable by the skipper.

The hull was divided into three compartments: bow, center and stern. The hull bottom was recessed for the wheels niches and the back comprised two propeller with their tunnels and rudders. It was essential to pump water out of the hull when swimming at all times, and so two powerful pumps centrifugal pumps, one with with a capacity of 300 l/min and a vortex type with 150 l/min were installed. Both were driven by the same chain activating the propeller shaft, drive by the transmission. They could provide buoyancy for up to 500 cm² at any time.

To drain the oil from the crankcase, screw plugs were provided in the bottom. This engine "deck" was covered by two hatches enabling access, and around were welded two headlights, an additional air duct receiver and the skipper's hold (anchor, cables, lights, flares, and equipments). The rear hatch gave access to the engine compartment, the front one to the radiator and cooling system. On land, air ducts from the deck entered the radiator; but when swimming, a heat exchanger cooled the engine by outboard water. The bow had three upper earrings for towing it.

The central compartment comprised the cabin housing control and the driver and commander's seats, with removable cushions. The forward-folding windshield left the roof open. The cabin floorboard behind was removable to access the hold. At the bottom left of the floor was installed a valve to collect and drain water. In case the main pumps fails, the vehicle was provided a spare mechanical pump for emergency. Its winch was located behind the wheelhouse, under the cargo platform and could pull up 44.1 kN, normally coupled with the engine. The cable diameter was 13 mm, 60 m long. It could be used for self-pulling. Both the cabin and cargo compartment were heated and could receive a canvas with removable fitting bows all along the main compartment.

The latter comprised a large flatbed usable as cargo platform, 10.4 m² in area. To facilitate loading/unloading there was a tailgate and gauge ladders aft. Under the removable floorboards the hull frame was acessible, revealing several holds for a box of spare parts, water rudder drive, spare wheel cover and extra cargo in bags or boxes. This weight acted as ballast, lowering the center of gravity. Also in the bottom, there were six holes closed with plugs for draining oil. Fuel tanks and plus the towing system were at the stern. For extra loading/unloading capabilities, a cargo crane could be installed at the end of the platform.

Powerplant and performances

The vehicle was also given two fuel tanks with a total capacity of 240 liters, placed in the hold of the stern. Its bow compartment is fully sealed to contain the engine, a six-cylinder ZIS-123 engine (model 485) shared with the BTR-152. The 5.55 L engine had an output of 112 hp, for a 6.5 compression, and was fitted with a K-84 downdraft carburetor, with two mixing chambers and and capped with a 3,100 rpm limiter. It was not really multifuel, but could run on A-70 or B-70 gasoline.



Detail of the propeller, rudder and tunnel, with the shaft drive right behind the rear axle

Chassis and transmission, significantly modified and integrated as a fully sealed body, came from a three-axle truck ZIS-151, quite close to the original GMC 353 truck delivered in lend-lease, which eased greatly the conversion. It was 6x6 with a 4x4 rear twin axles, single wheels, but all driving ones. The engine, transmission and running gear as well as the sealed folding tailgate were attached to it. The Suspension is dependent with two longitudinal semi-elliptical springs on the forward axle, and two double-acting hydraulic lever-piston shock absorbers aft on a balancing cart with jet rods. The five-speed gearbox coupled with the engine had three single-stage bevel main gears, helicoidal teeth for each drive axle while the suspension system and steering mechanism used a spherical worm with a three-ridged roller but no hydraulic booster, also from the ZIS-151.

The crankcase had two dry friction disk systems with a 2-speed transfer case, double-acting hydraulic shock absorbers from the BTR-152. The drum brakes were coupled with an pneumohydraulic drive on all wheels and there was a band parking brake acting only on the rear wheels. Like the interior heater, they came from the GAZ-63. The single disc wheels had a split rim, low-pressure tires 11.00-18" using a straight herringbone tread, attached to the hubs, with six pins. Air pressure could be regulated via the centralized inflation system working with pressure from 0.35 MPa for public roads up to 0.07 MPa on rough terrain. The track was 1620 mm on forward and aft axles.

Fuel range is estimated 570-690 km on land, 70 km when swmimming. Top speed on road was 73 km/h down to 40 km/h off-road and 10.7 km/h when swimming, with a 635 mm three-blade propeller, which torque was transmitted from the power take-off, also taken from fire trucks. It used a three-section cardan shaft, with two struts to the propeller shaft. Nine cardan shafts were installed in the transmission in total, for the driver to choose to connect the propeller tube and winch. When swimming, the rudder was used, driven by cables and connected to the front axle. Turning radius, on land, was 11.25 m, 9 m when swimming.

The vehicle had a relatively high ground clearance and still light enough to cross wooden bridges. It was found able to negociate 32° slopes unladen, 29° loaded, and moving along a 20° slope, cross a 0.75 m wide ditch or climb a wall 0.5 m high.

Additional equipment and cargo

The BAZ 485 had a single-wire circuit rated for 12 V and the amphibious electric power source used a G15-B DC generator producing 220 W plus two 6-volt 3-ST-84 batteries connected in series. The ignition system used this batteries, with an Electric starter rated for 1.32 kW. As for Cargo capabilities, the BAV 485 standard infantrey load is of 28 fully equipped troops or up to 3 tons of cargo. The list included also various ordnances: Any gun up to 85 mm in caliber and its full crew and ammunitions, or a 122mm howitzer with crew. It could also carry another vehicle, the GAZ-69 staff car with cargo and GAZ-63 light truck without cargo. On land the capacity was rediced to 2.5 tons. To facilitate loading, the folding tailgate and removable gauge ladders plus winch enabled the loading of any heavy equipment. There was even a coupling device under the tailgate to be usable for towing any load, or trailer, of the same weight or type as for the corresponding ZIL-151 truck.

Modernization

The vehicle on the long run knew a wave of improvements:
-The engine was was upgraded to the one from a ZIL-157 (122 hp)
-The 2-disk clutch was replaced with a single one
-The gear ratio, second gear in the transfer case, was increased to 1.44 (out of 1.24)
-A synchronized gearbox and separated reversible power take-off were installed for the propeller and winch
-The telescopic shock absorbers froward were upgraded. -New tures of the I-111 size 12.00-18 type installed, both larger and softer with the oblique Christmas tree tread pattern -New, better central inflation system installed through drillings in the wheel trunnions -New floating heads with seals inside the hub, having an air supply through flexible hoses in complement
-The spare wheel was moved to the cargo platform for better access.
-Reinforced drive axles with an expanded wheel track by 130 mm
-Increased road clearance by 27 mm
-Main brake drive replaced with a pneumatic system, better valve.
-New parking brake blocking the transfer case.
-New 3-STE-135 batteries with increased capacity, allowing to power army radio stations aboard.
-Dimensions increased to 9540 × 2485 × 2780 mm for the platform.

Operational History


Two ZIS-485 amphibians under covers are visible on board the Ivan Rogov large landing craft

The BAV 485/BAV 485A was widely used in in the Soviet army, including by separate paratrooper battalions with 20 of these per company. By the late 1970s however they were worn out and actively replaced by the K-61, PTS, BTR-60, BMP-1 from the mid-60s, all amphibious and offering a better (notably NBC) protection. In the 1980s, attempts were made to use them for rescue at the very end of their life and they joined the civilian sector, seeing many applications over the years, and operated until the 1990s.

It seems the BAV 485 was only used by Soviet army and Polish army in the warsaw pact. It has established itself as a reliable and easy-to-use equipment and became a platform for testing and implementing new systems and leanr about amphibian vehicles specifics. This type marked the beginning of the systematic amphibian nature of all subsequent IFV and APC models, both off-road wheeled vehicles and tracked ones, as well as the central inflation system for wheeled vehicles, with single wheels of the same size on the front and rear axles.

Profiles

Basic vehicle is Soviet service

Basic vehicle is Soviet service in the 1950s

Vehicle covered by a tarpaulin

Vehicle covered by a tarpaulin

Vehicle with DSHK

Vehicle with DSHK. No photo shows the details of the installation

Polish BAV-485

Polish BAV-485 in 1980s camouflage, the only known used after USSR.

Gallery



Presentation in the 1950s



Polish vehicle



Polish BAW-485



Samochod_plywajacy_BAW



Model kit



In Kiev



Polish BAW/ZiL-485



Same



In civilian service: Vehicle used for tours in Vietnam

Sources/Read More

Links

Main Russian src
autotruck-press.ru
proauto.in.ua
army.armor.kiev.ua
tanky.dovidnyk.info/
leon-esman.chat.ru
lib.vkarp.com
armyrecognition.com
On scalemates
commons.wikimedia.org

Books

Hogg, Ian V., and Weeks, John. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles. Hamblyn Publishing Group Limited
Prochko, Yevgeniy. «Bolshoi avtomobil vodoplavayushchiy». „Tekhnika i Vooruzheniye”. 03/2009.
Hogg & Weeks, p.308, "BAV-485".
Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons & Warfare
Prochko, Yevgeniy. «Bolshoi avtomobil vodoplavayushchiy». „Tekhnika i Vooruzheniye”. 03/2009.
Наставление по военно-инженерному делу для Советской Армии. — М.: Военное издательство МО СССР, 1966.
Военно-инженерная подготовка. Учебное пособие. — М.: Военное издательство МО СССР, 1982.
Изделие 485. Руководство по эксплуатации. Часть 1. — М.: Военное издательство МО СССР, 1952.
Гоголев Л. Д. Автомобили-солдаты: Очерки об истории развития и военном применении автомобилей. — М.: "Патриот", 1990. — 191 с. — 100 000 экз.
Павлов С. П. Большой плавающий автомобиль. — М.: Воениздат МО СССР, 1961.
Ангелов С. Танки и самоходные установки. — М.: "АСТ", 2000.
Кочнев Е. Д. Автомобили Советской Армии 1946 – 1991. — М., 2011.
подполковник в отставке Протасов А. и канд.техн.наук, подполковник Протасов В. Журнал «Грузовик-пресс» № 6-2004, Статья: ЗИС-485
Журнал «Моделист-конструктор» № 5-1981 г. Статья: ЗИС-485.
Прочко Е. Журнал «Техника и вооружение» № 4-2009, Статья: «Большой автомобиль водоплавающий».
Журнал «Автомобильный моделизм».

Video

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US ww2 US Trucks
-Autocar U8144T 5/6-ton 4x4 truck
-Brockway/LaFrance 6-ton 6x6 truck, G512, 514, 547, 569
-Brockway 6-ton 6×6 truck
-Chevrolet m1931
-Chevrolet m1936
-Chevrolet G506 1.5 ton 4x4 truck
-Chevrolet G-7107 4-1/2 ton 4x4
-Chevrolet 3116 1-1/2 ton 4x2
-Chevrolet AFWX-354
-Corbitt 6-ton 6×6 truck
-Diamond T Model 980/981 12-ton 6x4 trucks (G159)
-Diamond T Model 968 4-ton 6x6 truck (G509)
-Diamond T Model 967
-Diamond T Model 970
-Diamond T Model 972
-Diamond M26 Dragon Wagon
-Diamond M19 Tank Transporter
-Diamond T Model 980
-Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 truck
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton truck
-Dodge WC-51/52 (3⁄4-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier)
-Dodge WC-53 (3⁄4-ton Carryall)
-Dodge WC-54/64 (3⁄4-ton Ambulance)
-Dodge WC-55 (3⁄4-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage)
-Dodge WC-56/57/58 (3⁄4-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance)
-Dodge WC-62/43 (G-507, 11⁄2-ton, 6x6 truck)
-Dodge M6 GMC
-Dodge T-234 "China/Burma" truck
-Ford B3000 S
-Ford V3000S
-Ford V3000A
-Ford BB
-Ford V8-51
-Ford m1931
-Ford V8 M1937
-Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) SU-COE 5-6 ton 4x4
-International B2
-International model 1937
-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4
-Studebaker US6x4 U-5
-Studebaker US6x4 U-7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-T1E1(M1) half-track
-T5 half-track
-T7 half-track
-T9 half-track
-Ward LaFrance
-White 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-White G-691 444T
-White 6-ton 6×6 truck G512, 514, 526, 547

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle
US ww2 Tractors. M1 Heavy Tractor:
  • Allis-Chalmers Model L
  • G-022 Caterpillar Model 60
  • G-89 Caterpillar RD7
  • G-98, G-107 Allis-Chalmers HD-10DW
  • G-101 International Harvester TD-18
  • G-126 Caterpillar D7
  • G-153 Caterpillar D8

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks


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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Half Tracks

-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
-Sd.Kfz.3 Maultier
-Sd.Kfz.4 Panzerwerfer
-Sd.Kfz.6
-Sd.Kfz.7
-Sd.Kfz.8
-Sd.Kfz.9
-Sd.Kfz.10
-Sd.Kfz.11
-Schwere Wehrmachtsschlepper
-Leichte Wehrmachtsschlepper
-Raupenschlepper Ost

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-Kfz.15 Horch 901
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-ОМ Autocarretta da Montagna
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-SPA CL39
-SPA ТМ40
-Fiat 618
Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Bianchi Miles
-Ceirano-50СМ
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-SPA-38R
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-FIAT-633NM
-FIAT-634N
-FIAT-666
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro and TE
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda TP32
-Breda TP 40
-Breda TP 41
-Breda 6x4 51
-90/53 su Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars
-Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M Ballila
-Fiat 508CM Coloniale
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War & Modern Vehicles

Section pending completion.
BAV-485 * MAZ-543 * GAZ 46 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * GAZ 51 * GAZ 63* ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-151 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-157/PR-11M * ZIL-6 * ZIL-6


* * * * Praga V3S * Tatra 813
Ford G398 * Borgward BE3000 * Henschel HS 115 * Hanomag AL 28 * Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Mercedes LG 315/46 * Magirus-Deutz 170 * Magirus-Deutz 232 * Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 * Magirus-Deutz A 6500 * MAN KAT-1 * SLT 50 Elefant TT * Liebherr 8x8 GLW * MAN TGM Mil 18 4x4 * Liebherr 4x4 FKL * MAN 630 L2 * Mercedes LA * Unimog 404 2.5 standard * DKW Munga (1956) * Mercedes G-class * Volkswagen Type 181 (1968) * Volkswagen Iltis (1978) * MAN LX Tactical Trucks * M3 Amphibious Rig
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8

Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK/MK * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL

IFA G5

Nissan 2.5 Truck * * Hitachi Type 73 artillery tractor (1974) * Toyota Type 73 * Isuzu HST * Nissan Patrol * Mitsubishi Type 73 * Toyota Land Cruiser *
Jiefang CA10 * Jiefang CA30
Beijing BJ212 * Beijing BJ2020 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * Wanshan W-2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | Berliet GBC 8 TK & Renault GBC 180 | Renault Kerax* | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scania TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | Arquus Trapper VT4 | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Modern Trucks

Section pending completion.

India:

Tatra Prithvi | Ashok-Leyland Agni II TEL

Italy:

Iveco ACTL

Romania:

AMT 25, AMT 950, DAC, Roman, Dacia Duster.

Indonesia:

Rantis P6 ATAV

Russia:

UAZ Esaul * Kamaz 6560 * Pantsir S1

France:

Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | <Renault Kerax | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scanian TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Germany:

Mercedes 250GD Wolf | Mercedes Wolf SSA | Mercedes G300 Greenliner | VW T3/T4/T6 van | BWM G650 GS | BMW F850 GS | BMW R1150 RT | BMW R1200 RT | KTM 400LS-E BdW | LIV(SO) Serval | German quads | Faun LST50-3 Elefant | Faun STL56 Franziska | Faun SLT Mammut | RMT HX81 | SAANH 70T | Mercedes Unimog U3/4/5000 | Mercedes Zetros | MAN KAT1 | RMT Multi 2 | RMT WLS 6x6 | RMT UTF WLKS 8x8 | | MAN TGS 8x4 | MAN TGS 6x4 | MAN RMMV TGA | Mercedes Atego | Mercedes Axor | EWK M3 Amph.Rig | Liebherr FKL | Liebherr FKM | T.Faun FKS ATF 30-2 | T.Faun FKS ATF 70-4 | T.Faun FKS ATF 100-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 110-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 120-5 Obelix | Steinbrock 2.5 Y4 | Herbst-Smag Orion V | Konecrane SMV 2216 TC3 | Ahlmann AS1600 | Liebherr 574 | MAN Cobra Radar | Liebherr LTM 1050

Netherlands:

Defenture Mammoth | to come | placeholder | MLC-70 WGMST

Turkey:

United Kingdom:

RWMIK land rover | Toyota Jankel Al-Thalab | Sky Sabre | Alvis Unipower | land Rover Wolf | Land Rover Defender BFA | Alvis Supacat ATMP | Marshall Gasket 3 | MAN SV (Mark I-III)

USA:

Interim Fast Attack Vehicle | M1161 Growler | Boeing Phantom Badger | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |