BM-13 Katyusha (1940)

Soviet trucks Rocket-Launcher truck

Development of Rocket Artillery in Soviet service

Katyuscha based ZIS-6 preserved at Nizhni Novgorod

Katyuscha based ZIS-6 preserved at Nizhni Novgorod.

The use of "rockets" (raketa in Russian) is a huge topic that would cover hundreds of pages if seen in detail. The art of rocketry was born practically at the same time as the development gunpowder in Asia, with Korea seemingly the most adept in its use, notably with the world's first battlefield rocket launcher, the Huacha. This was a very innacurate weapon which effect was mostly psychological, especially against poorly trained troops and mounted animals like horses. The rocket was still use in some rare cases by Western armies in the XVII-XIXth centuries. In WWI, it was mostly used by aircraft to hunt down observation balloons and airships, tipped with incendiary warheads. Again it returned to the marging and experiments in the interwar, and notably tested by engineers or amateurs in Germany and USSR but never considered seriously enough to motivate the creation of a specialized branch of the artillery.

Still, in the 1920s, USSR reconsidered this as a weapon and was ready to proceed to evaluation given the advances made on rocket fuel notably. The bulk of the studies were made at the time by the Reactive Scientific Research Institute. Initial development started with the solid propellant, with Nikolai Tikhomirov in charge of the Soviet Gas Dynamics Laboratory. The first test was performed by March 1928, with a 1,300 meters distance, and soon these mass-produced early rockets were for JATO (Assisted Aicraft Take-Off) most often when overloaded. RS-82 and RS-132 models (the initials stands for "Reaktivnyy Snaryad" or "rocket-powered shell" by the early 1930s under the direction of Georgy Langemak. These smaller, simpler aircraft-fired rockets were intended for ground support.

Loading the BM-13-16: The M-13 needs to be well inserted in the rails.

June 1938 saw the creation of the Reactive Scientific Research Institute, starting producing launcher prototypes and created ultimately the modified 132 mm (5.2 in) M-132 rockets. At first two axles ZIS-5 trucks were tested with simple ramps mounted in broadsides, but they proved unstable. V.N. Galkovskiy then proposed longitudinal launch rails with some base traverse. In August 1939, these attemps succeeded in creating the BM-13 (BM for "boyevaya mashina" or "combat vehicle" with rails created to carry M-13 rockets.

First large-scale firing of rockets for comparative purposes (range, accuracy, explosive power...) were made by fall 1938, with 233 fired. Grouped fire manage to completely destroy a large target some 5,500 metres (3.4 mi) away, and artillery officers, intended to receive the new systems, however, were not impressed. It seems already the system was known "Katyusha" from a very common Russian girl name, but it was more complicated (see later). The greatest point of contention was that 50 minutes were needed before firing the 24 rounds whereas a conventional howitzer co do 95-150 rounds in the meantime. Testings went on in 1940, with the BM-13-16 (Launch rails for sixteen rockets) was found the best of all these systems, and greenlight for mass production. However at the time of Operation Barabrossa in June 1941, only forty launchers (without base) had been delivered. So they counted for naught in the initial phase.

About the name, Initially, secrecy had them named the "Kostikov guns" (after the head of the RNII institute) and "Guards Mortars" as only guard units fielded them at the start. The name "BM-13" on appeared in secret documents from 1942, staying classified until 1945. The "K" was applied from the Voronezh Komintern Factory as only clue, so Red Army troops found "Katyusha" in the popular Mikhail Isakovsky's song, a girl longing for her absent beloved at war, a theme reminiscent of "Lili Marlene". Katyusha (Katherine) was often transformed into "Katya" rather used affectionately. Still on the receving axis end, this was "Stalinorgel" (Stalin's organs) and it genuinly terrified German troops. The Finnish called them "Stalinin urut" and Hungarians "Sztálinorgona". The larger BM-31 launcher became Andryusha (diminutive of "Andrew").

The BM-13 rocket system

A rather overloaded ZIS-5 BM-13-16 preserved.

If the BM-13-16 was the first introduced, many more were also produced, with only changes on the general configuration for the ramps, which were standardized in three lenght with the same dimensions, and to save metal, holed along. The fixtures to held them together were made with simple beams and profiles and the initial mail launh beams were shaped in a "T" or like a rail tread, with guides on both sides. The rockets, which had a build-in quills, were inserted manually, which was the longest part of the process. The elements were also, given the lenght of the structure, mounted on frames using pre-assembled tubes ending with welded bolting heads, also standardized with clear marking in order to be delivered as kits for easy conversions on the battlefield.

All this process started after production was relocated in the Urals and restarted, in mid-1942 production rapidly ramped up to reach several thousands "kits" by the winter 1942-43. At Stalingrad, the system was used in mass for the first time. Depending on the target distance, more or les long ramps were used. However the greatest standard became rapidly the 13-12, by far the most common and with the longest range.

BM-13N preserved in Moskow, note the cabin's protection panels, doubling as light armour with sight slits; They all could be folded on the roof.

Manufactured in the Voronezh excavator factory (rockets and mounts), two BM-13 were combat-tested in July 1941 and construction was rationalized constantly during the war for easier manufacture, allowed greater volley repetition going over time from five minutes to fifteen seconds. 300 BM-13 from Voronezh were used for the Moskow winter 1941 counter-attack, their first mass use, which was successful as the Germans never encountered such firepower. The psychological terror they inspired by their noise as part of the drama. It was some payback for the Stuka attacks all along the summer.

The simple design counted on very standardized racks of parallel rails on folding frame, helping to raise the rails to launch position, with the base provided a truning table for full traverse, and later, a system of securization and folding stabilization feets.

The M-13 rocket

The M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 80 cm (2 ft 7 in) long, 13.2 cm (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kg (93 lb) for a 4.9 kg (11 lb) warhead, range was 8,740 m (9,560 yd). The system obviously lacked accuracy but was excellent for saturation fire, better than any artillery battery by the sudden, massive rain of warheads on a concentrated perimeter. The explosive warhead was equivalent to a marine shell of that caliber, although some Russian self-propelled guns such as the SU/ISU-152 had larger calibers. A direct impact on any tank was also shattering. It evolved frmom the earlier, smaller M-8, 82mm,0.64 kg (1.4 lb) model that can reach 5,900 m (6,500 yd) and light enough to be mounted on Jeeps or light tanks. Later, the M13 was improved with a longer barrel and charge as the M-13DD for a range of 11,800 m (12,900 yd). The final M-13UK was safer, and easier to reload, still with a range of 7,900 m (8,600 yd). Later were developed the M-20, 132 mm but longer and 18.4 kg (41 lb), for a range of 5,050 m (5,520 yd), the M-30 of 300 mm (12-inches, battleship caliber) weighting 28.9 kg (64 lb) but only 2,800 m (3,100 yd). The propeller tube was indeed smaller than the bulbous charge for easier manutention. It was further developed into the M-31, range 4,325 m (4,730 yd) and the M-31UK, range 4,000 m (4,400 yd), which all had the same wearhead but minor perforlances differences.

The BM-13 rocket system

The favourite platform became by far the ZIS-6 truck with its 2x8 chassis, strong enough for the largest configuration, with some reaching 72 rockets, like the BM-8-72 only carried by rail carriages and armoured trains. The largest, truck-based, was the BM-8-48 (48 rockets) carried by the ZIS-6 and Studebaker US6, espcially the latter in 1945 which superseded the weaker, obsolete ZIS-6 and was used for long postwar. It was soon deslined into a multude of platforms, not only trucks, see below:

Main Variants

BM-31-12 on a ZIS-12 chassis (the 300 mm 12-inches model). This was not a popular version, the lend-lease, then home-produced US-6 was far more suitable. The "armour plates" on the cabin's windows were not for bullet protection, but protect the crew inside from the massive blast.
  • BM-8-36/ZIS-5 or ZIS-6 truck
  • BM-8-40: towed trailer for ZIS-5/ZIS-6 truck
  • BM-8-48/ZIS-6 truck
  • BM-13-12/ZIS-6 truck
  • BM-13-12/ZIS-5 truck
  • BM-13-12/ZIS-5V truck
  • BM-13-12/GAZ-AA (Towed trailer only)
  • BM-13N: Mounted on the Studebaker US6 2½-ton 6×6 truck
  • BM-13-16: mounted on the Austin K7, Intl. M-5-5-318, Fordson WOT8, Marmon HH6-COE4, Chevy G-7117, GMC CCKW-352M-13
  • BM-13-12/ZIS-151 (postwar)
  • BM-20-6 Towed Trailer
  • BM-30-4 Towed Trailer
  • BM-31-4 Towed Trailer
  • BM-31-12: Mounted on the Studebaker US6 U3 truck
  • Rarer Variants

  • BM-8: Improvized basic mount
  • BM-8-6: Light Towed trailer
  • BM-8-8: Mounted on lend-lease Willys MB jeep
  • BM-8-24: Mounted on T-40 chassis
  • BM-13-12/STZ-5
There were also variants carried in BM-8-72 Armored train car, Pr. 1125 River boat, Towed sledge, Towed trailer, and even individual backpack or "mountain Katyusha"...

German 8 cm Raketen-Vielfachwerfer
The German 8 cm Raketen-Vielfachwerfer was based on the Katyusha, here to protect the Riva Bella Atlantic wall HQ on the coast in Northern France, 30 May 1944. This was a modified half-track based on the SOMUA MCG.

Captured Katyushas by Germany were reused in various ways, but soon they found the Russian system crude and instead anufactured the 8 cm Raketen-Vielfachwerfer, still based on the Katyusha. It was used on many platforms in 1944-45. Romania's Mareșal tank destroyer prototype by late 1942 was declined into a Katyusha rocket launcher variant, tested by the summer of 1943, but this was abandoned.

Combat deployment

By July 14, 1941, a first experimental battery of seven launchers was used for the battle at Rudnya in Smolensk Oblast (Captain Ivan Flyorov) and completely shattered and dispersed a concentration of spotted German troops, tanks, wheeled armored vehicles and trucks gathered in a marketplace. Never accustomed to such firepower and its effect, the whole unit hastily retreat from town, completely panicked. At first only Guards mortar batteries were created, to support infantry divisions, four launchers each and kept under NKVD control to keep the secrecy.

On August 8, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight special Guards mortar regiments to be used by the Reserve of the Supreme High Command, each regiment composed of three battalions subdivised in three batteries for 36 BM-13/BM-8. Guards mortar battalions had 12 launchers in three batteries, four each and by the end of 1941, eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, two independent batteries were deployed, so 554 launchers. They proved instrumental in the counter-offensive of moskow.

By June 1942, heavy Guards mortar battalions received the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, 96 launchers in three batteries. They were long to deploy, but their effects before an offensive war properly terrifying. By July 1942, a battalion of BM-13s was added to each tank corps and by 1944, BM-31s were deployed in motorized heavy Guards mortar battalions, each having 48 launcher vehicles. In 1943, Guards mortar brigades, later divisions, received static launchers. Fall 1942 already there were 57 regiments in service plus many independent battalions for 216 batteries, composed as follows:
-21% BM-8 light launchers
-56% BM-13
-23% M-30 heavy launchers.

After initial success in june for the first battery, mass production was ordered in July, with the development of new models. Unlike tanks, aircraft or even artillery pieces and more like the mortar, the system was quite inexpensive and production was soon extended to more light industrial installations with simple equipment so by the end of 1942, 3,237 Katyusha launchers were delivered, and 10,000 by the end of the war, in all forms. This means millions of rockets, mostlt of the M13 and M30 types. This was enough to have 518 batteries in service in 1945, ranging from 4 to 12 vehicles.

Truck-mounted Katyushas were by far the most popular and common to compose these batteries, with the ZIS-6 6×4 trucks preferred at first, and two-axle ZIS-5 and ZIS-5V, with more often reduced launchers. In 1941 for extra mobility in winter, they were also mounted on STZ-5 artillery tractors but only one or two batteries were created. Some were even mounted on recovered or surplus KV tank chassis, giving birth to the KV-1K, but it failed to do some impression.

With mounting lend-lease deliveries of British, Canadian and U.S. trucks, more were converted for this use. By elimination the one preferred in 1943 and praised above all else, was the Studebaker US6 2½-ton 6×6 truck which became the Katyusha standard mounting as BM-13N (The"N" stands for "normalizovanniy" or "standardized") with 1,800 manufactured by in 1945, and post-war the legacy went on on the closely based ZIS-151 truck.

Offensive on Berlin: A battery of BM-13Ns (Studebaker US6) firing in concert.

A battery of BM-13-16 launchers included four firing vehicles, two reload trucks and two technical support trucks. Eacch vehicle operate with a crew of six, with two seated in the cabin and two on the mounting, the others with rockets in the supply trucks. Reloading ranged at first to 3–4 minutes so to avoid counter-battery fire, the trucks quickly retreated to another position 10 km away to reload. Three batteries for a company (called "divize"), three made a separate regiment inside a full division, with guards units at corps level.

B13N operating on the Yugoslav Front

The initial massive use was in 1942, starting by December 1941 counter-offensive at Moskow. Uusually batteries fired in 7–10 seconds, but they together send to a 400,000-square-metre (4,300,000 sq ft) target area some 4.35 tons of high explosives. This was equivalent to a battery of 72 howitzers furing in concert. With the right support, extra loaders and suply trucks, skilled crews could relaunch in the matter of minutes, and with a semi-automatic reloading system at the end of the war, a mere 15 seconds. It made impossible any counterbattery fire. In general, these were deployed in very large numbers for the surprise and shock effect. It became soon one of the wehrmacht's infantry worst encounter.

That would take too long to detail all the campaigns were these batteries were deployed, but by 1943, virtually all offensives started with a Katusha barrage, completed by a rapid advance, the artillery being growingly used to mop up pockets, and as complement, to keep the infantry head down during the progressing attack. The largest mass use was during Operation Bagrations, the East Prussia offensive, and the Battle of Berlin where the massive M30 were used to flatten entire blockouses. When caught under fire by these battleship-size protectiles, it was not rare for tanks to be tossed over like toys.

But the end of WW2 did not meant the end of this weapon system, far from it: Weurher it was based on the ZIL-151 truck or other, more modern platforms, the Katyusha soldiered on under many flags and many regions of the world, seeing service in the First Indochina War, Korean and Vietnam Wars, Cambodian–Vietnamese War, Yom Kippur War, South African Border War, Ogaden War, Iran–Iraq War, Uganda–Tanzania War, 2006 Lebanon War, First Libyan Civil War, Syrian civil war, War in Iraq (2013–2017), Yemeni civil war (2014–present) and Saudi Arabian–led intervention in Yemen. They were so ingrained in the Soviet command in the cold war, that they premeated into all supported countries around the world. The West took notice already in WW2 anbd developed its own systems, the last of which is the M270 vehicle shared as a NATO standard.

The cold war Soviet doctrine led to develop further the concept, with waves of new models, under the generic name of multiple rocket launchers (MRL), with the adoption of the 140 mm BM-14 and 240 mm BM-24. Then appeared the legendary BM-21 Grad launcher and at the end of the top line, the massive BM-27 Uragan. Today they fired far more impressive rockets, using bomblet submunitions, or remotely mining the terrain, of more advanced chemical warheads. Unlike modern artillery that can fire a rapid volley at various parabolic trajectories to erach a single point at the same time, this is only possible within a battery, each vehicle adopting a different fire angle.

The historical significance over time was raised in Russia at the same level as the AK-47 Kalashikov, and by decree of the President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev in 21, 1991n I. T. Kleymenov, G. E. Langemak, V. N. Luzhin, B. S. Petropavlovsky, B. M. Slonimer and N. I. Tikhomirov were all posthumously awarded title of the Hero of Socialist Labour.

Sources/Read More, review of platform trucks and tractors


BM-13-16 on ZIS-6, base

ZIS-5 BM-13

BM-13-16 based on a GAZ-AAA

BA-13-16 winter

BM-8 based on a ZIS-5

BM-13 based on a ZIS-5

BM-8-36 based on a ZIS-5

Studebaker US-6 BM-13N

GMC-7107 BM-13-12

GMC-7117 BM-13-16

GMC-352 Katiucha

T-60 BM-8-24 Katiucha

T70 BM-8-24


Modern model based on the ZIL-131

WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
British ww2 British WWI Vehicles
LGOC B-type troop Bus
Mack AC
Pierce-Arrow AA truck
BSA 14/18 hp-20/25 hp
BSA 13.9 h.p
Lanchester staff Car
Thornycroft J
Maudslay Lorry
AEC Y Type
Foster-Daimler Tractor
Motorc. Triumph H
Ford Model T Patrol Car
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Leyland 3-ton truck
Vulcan truck
Vauxhall D-type staff car
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French ww2 French WWI Vehicles
Berliet CBA
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Panhard K11
Latil TAR Tractor
Panhard-Genty 24 HP
Renault EG
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Renault Truck 60CV
Renault FB Artillery Portee
Schneider CD Artillery Tractor
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US ww2 US WWI Vehicles
Holt tractor
Liberty Trucks, assembled by:
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Spruce log truck
Dodge M1918 Light Repair truck
Dart BB, E, L, Liberty CC4, J Tractor
5-ton Artillery Tractor
Ford Model T Ambulance
Mack AC "Bulldog" Truck
Holt 15-ton Tractor
Jeffery Quad Lorry
FWD Model B‎
Italy ww1 Italian WWI Vehicles
Lancia IZ
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German Empire ww1 German WWI Vehicles
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Daimler Marienfelde Truck
Field Artillery Limbers
Große FeldKüche Hf.13
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Soviet ww2 Austro-Hungarian Vehicles
Austro-Daimler Lorry
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B-Zug Artillery Tractor
Feldküche M.1915

Turkish vehicles Turkish WWI Vehicles
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allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
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US ww2 Canadian Trucks
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Soviet ww2 Soviet Trucks
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Soviet staff cars
-GAZ M1 "Emka"
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Soviet ww2 Czech Trucks
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-Praga T6 (1937) artillery tractor
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-Tatra 26
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US ww2 US Trucks
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-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
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-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4
-Studebaker US6x4 U-5
-Studebaker US6x4 U-7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-T1E1(M1) half-track
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-T9 half-track
-Ward LaFrance
-White 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-White G-691 444T
-White 6-ton 6×6 truck G512, 514, 526, 547

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle
US ww2 Tractors. M1 Heavy Tractor:
  • Allis-Chalmers Model L
  • G-022 Caterpillar Model 60
  • G-89 Caterpillar RD7
  • G-98, G-107 Allis-Chalmers HD-10DW
  • G-101 International Harvester TD-18
  • G-126 Caterpillar D7
  • G-153 Caterpillar D8

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks

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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Half Tracks

-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
-Sd.Kfz.3 Maultier
-Sd.Kfz.4 Panzerwerfer
-Schwere Wehrmachtsschlepper
-Leichte Wehrmachtsschlepper
-Raupenschlepper Ost

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-Kfz.15 Horch 901
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-ОМ Autocarretta da Montagna
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-Fiat 618
Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Bianchi Miles
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro and TE
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda TP32
-Breda TP 40
-Breda TP 41
-Breda 6x4 51
-90/53 su Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars
-Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M Ballila
-Fiat 508CM Coloniale
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War & Modern Vehicles

Section pending completion.
BAV-485 * MAZ-543 * GAZ 46 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * GAZ 51 * GAZ 63* ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-151 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-157/PR-11M * ZIL-6 * ZIL-6

* * * * Praga V3S * Tatra 813
Ford G398 * Borgward BE3000 * Henschel HS 115 * Hanomag AL 28 * Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Mercedes LG 315/46 * Magirus-Deutz 170 * Magirus-Deutz 232 * Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 * Magirus-Deutz A 6500 * MAN KAT-1 * SLT 50 Elefant TT * Liebherr 8x8 GLW * MAN TGM Mil 18 4x4 * Liebherr 4x4 FKL * MAN 630 L2 * Mercedes LA * Unimog 404 2.5 standard * DKW Munga (1956) * Mercedes G-class * Volkswagen Type 181 (1968) * Volkswagen Iltis (1978) * MAN LX Tactical Trucks * M3 Amphibious Rig
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8

Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK/MK * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL


Nissan 2.5 Truck * * Hitachi Type 73 artillery tractor (1974) * Toyota Type 73 * Isuzu HST * Nissan Patrol * Mitsubishi Type 73 * Toyota Land Cruiser *
Jiefang CA10 * Jiefang CA30
Beijing BJ212 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * Wanshan W-2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | Berliet GBC 8 TK & Renault GBC 180 | Renault Kerax* | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scania TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | Arquus Trapper VT4 | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Modern Trucks

Section pending completion.


Tatra Prithvi | Ashok-Leyland Agni II TEL


Iveco ACTL


AMT 25, AMT 950, DAC, Roman, Dacia Duster.


Rantis P6 ATAV


UAZ Esaul * Kamaz 6560 * Pantsir S1


Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | <Renault Kerax | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scanian TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB


Mercedes 250GD Wolf | Mercedes Wolf SSA | Mercedes G300 Greenliner | VW T3/T4/T6 van | BWM G650 GS | BMW F850 GS | BMW R1150 RT | BMW R1200 RT | KTM 400LS-E BdW | LIV(SO) Serval | German quads | Faun LST50-3 Elefant | Faun STL56 Franziska | Faun SLT Mammut | RMT HX81 | SAANH 70T | Mercedes Unimog U3/4/5000 | Mercedes Zetros | MAN KAT1 | RMT Multi 2 | RMT WLS 6x6 | RMT UTF WLKS 8x8 | | MAN TGS 8x4 | MAN TGS 6x4 | MAN RMMV TGA | Mercedes Atego | Mercedes Axor | EWK M3 Amph.Rig | Liebherr FKL | Liebherr FKM | T.Faun FKS ATF 30-2 | T.Faun FKS ATF 70-4 | T.Faun FKS ATF 100-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 110-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 120-5 Obelix | Steinbrock 2.5 Y4 | Herbst-Smag Orion V | Konecrane SMV 2216 TC3 | Ahlmann AS1600 | Liebherr 574 | MAN Cobra Radar | Liebherr LTM 1050


Defenture Mammoth | to come | placeholder | MLC-70 WGMST


United Kingdom:

RWMIK land rover | Toyota Jankel Al-Thalab | Sky Sabre | Alvis Unipower | land Rover Wolf | Land Rover Defender BFA | Alvis Supacat ATMP | Marshall Gasket 3 | MAN SV (Mark I-III)


Interim Fast Attack Vehicle | M1161 Growler | Boeing Phantom Badger | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |