Tatra 813 (1930)

Czech trucks Medium 8x8* Truck (1960-1982) - 11,751 built
The Tatra 813 was a 8x8 Czechoslovak truck produced from 1967 until the arrival of its successor, the T815, which entered service in 1982. The versatile versatile was exported and used both in the military and civilian fields. The first prototype was built in 1960, recycling features from the Tatra 138's 4x4 drive, but later expanded into 8x8 drive. It had a tubular frame construction and was offered in 4WD, 6WD, or 8WD, declined into 5 models and exported. Still used in the civilian market in 4x4, 6x6 and 8x8 versions, many specialized.

Design Development





The first working prototype of the new T 813 chassis (to replace the Tatra 138) was built by personal from the design office of Bánovce (Bebravou) company branch in 1960. It was built as much as possible from aggregates and parts for the Tatra 138 whose production was just started at the time. It was an unbodied eight-wheel chassis, with four unprotected seats on the fenders of the first two axles, but still some motorcycle Plexiglas shield in front of the driver's seat, for tests. It ran on several test fields to gather experience with the first Czech four-axle truck ever. Further development was stopped as the Bánovce plant concentrated on the production of Tatra 111 specialized types and the new heavy tractor Tatra 141. This eight-wheel chassis was not forgotten, and still tested from time to time.

At the beginning of 1964, development of the eight-wheeled military truck was at last officially resumed, and this time for a proper production, and receiving a dedicated body and all needed modification, named Tatra 813. The prototype was presented in Bánovce, at Tatra's economic workers ground by August 1964 with basic structural parts from the T 138 and T930 V12 engine (17,640 cm³, 250 hp). It was connected to a five-speed gearbox with two reduction gears, making for a total of 20 speeds forward, 4 speeds backwards. Thanks to this concept, the new truck was tested and found able to overcome a 1.5 meters wide trench, 60 centimeters vertical obstacle and drive on a 30° slope. This were world's best figures for a truck at the time, and not surpassed by any of the later (1980s) T 815 type.

In addition to the chassis, the new Tatra truck differed from previous vehicles by using a simple mounting of wide-profile tires on all axles coupled with a central tire inflation system. It also had a new spacious, five-seat+ cabin and overall angular shapes, which were futuristic at the time. By the fall of 1964, 4 prototypes were created based on this first vehicle, and serial production was prepared. The first of 50 chassis preserie vehicle left the assembly line on Friday, March 24, 1967.



In connection with a more favourable, lenient political atmoshpere in Czechoslovakia, it was considered the T 813 could also be used in the civilian sector, replacing the obsolete Tatra 141 based on the prewar Tatra 111. In 1969, the department of the chief designer presented new models of the T813 declined in a 4×4 version, as a tractor for 60 t trailers, as well as a 6×6 capable of towing up to 80 t and the 8×8 for a 100 t trailer, with reworked axles creating more sub-variants. They entered service as tractors or chassis for cranes vehicles or othr heavy duty specialists. In cooperation with the West German company SEMEX, a powerful airport tractor handling aircraft up to 300 tons was also created. However soon the "Prague Spring" and USSR fierce repression mant Tatra had to stop all its developments and work with Germany or any NATO countries. The sole vehicle was used at Ruzyně airport.

Design

Chassis and specifics


The basis was typical for Tatra with a backbone, central support tube and swinging semi-axles. It had two front (steerable) axles and two also driven rear axles, but the front axles can be switched off. These axles were all separated from each other by inter-axle differentials, and the entire chassis had a total of 7 front differentials. Between the second and third axles, the intermediate section of the additional gearbox was mounted on the central backbone "spine" on which the main gearbox was also mounted. Derived types differ in the absence of the last, first and last axles, making for 6x6 and 4x4 declinations. Depending on the type, the individual semi-axles receives leaf springs, torsion bars, bellows springs or combinations. All semi-axles were also equipped in addition with liquid suspension shock absorbers.

The individual axles were composed of a transfer case, half-axles, drive shafts and wheel reducers, reduce the stress on the entire drive system. There was a simple tire assembly, however army versions had a central tire inflation system with a compressor able to pressurize a tire with up to 12 punctures without deformation, or for easy change of pressure according to the terrain conditions. The steering axles had also a liquid booster copied on the T 138 cars, which had a greater effect on the wheels.



Tatra T 813 engine

The T930 type power unit is rated for 17,640 cm³ (bore 120/stroke 130 mm) air-cooled V12 at 75° angle, four-stroke, and naturally aspirated diesel, provided with direct fuel injection, OHV distribution, one camshaft for all cylinders. It had in its first version an output of 190 kW (258 hp) and 990 Nm Torque at 1300 rpm. Diesel consumption varied between 44 liters for 100 km and above, depending on the load and terrain, on road of off-road.

Cooling counts on a fan controlled by a fluid clutch, setup in part by the thermostat which controls the fan speed automatically. Engine lubrication used a dry crankcase, with an engine oil cooler located in front of the fan, on the hinged hood section. The starter was designed to work at very low temperatures, with a two starters system fitted, whereas the engine is heated via an independent diesel heater. Later the T813 was tried with new engine prototypes, notably a smaller, eight-cylinder gasoline engine, which failed its tests, only 10 being produced (fate unknown).

Transmission

As for the clutch and transmission, the former uses dry friction in a two-disc configuration for the 4x4, but three in the 8x8 and TP 6x6 versions, and booster. The clutch is connected to the transmission by a universal shaft. This made for a 5 forward gears and 1 reverse gear on the 4x4, but the 8×8 and TP 6×6 versions had an addition two-speed overdrive. Mechanical control meant there is a lever located next to the instrument panel; on the right side. The second to fifth gear are secured by the "blocked synchronization" from Tatra.

The additional transmission is two-stage, whereas on road and off-road gear, controlled electropneumatically, using a selector on the shift lever. The 8×8 and 6×6 versions had however a single downward gear. Neutral is selected electropneumatically, with a switch on the instrument panel. By combining these, the driver could master 20 forward gears, 4 reverse gears, all selectable. In addition, some 8×8 versions had overdrive, an expetional feature for trucks with the first stage in direct engagement for driving with a heavy trailer and the second performing as overdrive at maximum speed.

Brakes

Service brakes used the drum system, but with pneumatic drives and located in the wheels. The braking system was composed of the front axle circuit, rear axle circuit and trailer brake circuit. The drum parking brake is located on the auxiliary gearbox. There was also an extra relief engine brake. The electrical system is based on a 24 V voltage, with grounded negative pole two 12V batteries (175 Ah) and a 24V alternator (30 A).

Cabin

The cabin of the 8x8 is the "trambus", twin seating, four doors type. But there were also versions with a short two-door cabin for civilian use mostly. The military version is distinctive as having 5-7 seating for extra personal outside the driver, and on the roof, two circular hatches to man machine guns. The double cabin counts two rows, and could accomodate up to Seven including the driver if needed. Between the front seats there is a tunnel for the engine cover, both thermally and sound-insulated. The cabin has its own independent diesel heating as seen above.

Winch

Military options, in addition to the double cabin, central inflation system, also comprises an optional drum winch mounted on the frame between the third and fourth axles. The latter has a worm with a friction clutch, and is equipped with a drum brake. The pulling steel rope could 60 m long (196 feets) with a diameter of 22.4 mm (0.88 in). Maximum force supported as tested was 98 kN (unwound 176.5 kN).

Production

Until 1970, serial production was planned according to the individual departments needs and export, with for example 375 T-813 to East Germany and Poland. After 1970, 1447 were produced for the needs of the Czechoslovakian Army while the armored RM vz.70 rocker launcher version was also reiceived, and the bridgelayer (417 delivered). Record shows that between 1961 to 1982, 11,751 T-813 were delivered in 4×4, 6×6 and 8×8 versions, which is the generally accepted figure.

Variants

The chassis existed in the following variants:
  • 8×8 KOLOS (all-purpose chassis) – two steerable axles, front and rear suspension with longitudinal leaf springs
  • TP 6x6 (trailer tractor) – two steerable axles, torsion bar suspension at the front, longitudinal leaf springs at the rear
  • TP 4x4 (trailer tractor) - one steered axle, front and rear suspension with torsion bars
  • NT 4x4 (semi-tractor or crane chassis) - single steered axle, front torsion bar suspension, rear bellows air springs with automatic ground clearance control
  • Trailer tractor
  • Bridge Layer
  • Pontoon vehicle
  • Special use rear cab variant

Civilian Variants

T 813 cars were produced in different types of designs:
  • TP 4×4 – trailer tractor; NT 4×4 – trailer tractor; chassis for AD 125 mobile crane
  • TP 6×6 – trailer tractor; several prototypes were created as a tipper with a single steering axle
  • TP 8×8 – trailer tractor; tippers, chassis for heavy-duty mobile crane AD 350; firefighting superstructures
Also due to its exceptional off-road characteristics the vehicle was popular as trials truck, in raids and competition, generally equipped with a bar framing and self-recover system.

Operation

The vehicle was used by the East German, Polish and Czech Militaries. For example the East Germany Army used these as tractors for the 130mm M-46 guns in the 1970s. Czech vehicles in winter were used T-813 with a snow plow. Its length was 2520 mm for 850 mm high, 250 mm plughing ability on average at 3 kph. The vehicle came in three basic flatbed variants, with the six-framed basic flatbed, additional wooden paneling on the sides and read up to the cabin rood level, and completely covered by a tarpaulin. The vehicle was also sold to Iran.

Tatra 813 specifications

DimensionsLength 8,800 mm, Width 2,500 mm, Height 2780 mm
Weight, curb13,800 kg
Weight, gross22,000 kgs
Payload7,500 kg (or 65 tons trailer as tractor)
Crew1 driver, 5-6 personal
PropulsionTatra V12 diesel 17.6 l 199 kW (270 hp)
Transmission5+1 speed synchronized, 2 sages Redux Gbx
Top speed80+ km/h Road
Fuel consumption44 l/100 km, range 650 km (road)
SuspensionLeaf spring, coil-springs, torsion bars, etc.
Maximum range (on/off road)300/150 km (190/93 mi)
Armament None
ProductionTatra only 1938–1940 - 550+



Read More/Src

cs.wikipedia.org
On auto.cz
On tatraportal.sk
Tatra in movies, imcdb.org
.valka.cz
On archive.armorama.com
behance.net
taringa.net
tatra-modell.de

Videos



Illustrations


Basic Czech Vehicle, with tarpaulin


Iranian Vehicle, exported in the early 1980s and involved in the Iran-Iraq war


East German Vehicle


Iraqi Vehicle (presumably captured)


(To come) TM-70 Czech Rocket Launcher Truck


Civilian Vehicle, with the simple flatbed configuration

Photos


East German model with canvas


















































Crane variant

WW1 Vehicles

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allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

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Axis ww2 Axis Trucks


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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
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-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
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-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
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-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
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-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
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German ww2 German Half Tracks

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-Sd.Kfz.4 Panzerwerfer
-Sd.Kfz.6
-Sd.Kfz.7
-Sd.Kfz.8
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German ww2 German Staff Cars

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italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
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Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
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H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
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-ОМ Titano
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italy ww2 Artillery tractors
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-Breda TP 40
-Breda TP 41
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-90/53 su Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
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italy ww2 Staff Cars
-Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M Ballila
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italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
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Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
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-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
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Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
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Japan ww2 Staff cars
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-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
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-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
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-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War & Modern Vehicles

Section pending completion.
BAV-485 * MAZ-543 * GAZ 46 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * GAZ 51 * GAZ 63* ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-151 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-157/PR-11M * ZIL-6 * ZIL-6


* * * * Praga V3S * Tatra 813
Ford G398 * Borgward BE3000 * Henschel HS 115 * Hanomag AL 28 * Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Mercedes LG 315/46 * Magirus-Deutz 170 * Magirus-Deutz 232 * Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 * Magirus-Deutz A 6500 * MAN KAT-1 * SLT 50 Elefant TT * Liebherr 8x8 GLW * MAN TGM Mil 18 4x4 * Liebherr 4x4 FKL * MAN 630 L2 * Mercedes LA * Unimog 404 2.5 standard * DKW Munga (1956) * Mercedes G-class * Volkswagen Type 181 (1968) * Volkswagen Iltis (1978) * MAN LX Tactical Trucks * M3 Amphibious Rig
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8

Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK/MK * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL

IFA G5

Nissan 2.5 Truck * * Hitachi Type 73 artillery tractor (1974) * Toyota Type 73 * Isuzu HST * Nissan Patrol * Mitsubishi Type 73 * Toyota Land Cruiser *
Jiefang CA10 * Jiefang CA30
Beijing BJ212 * Beijing BJ2020 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * Wanshan W-2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | Berliet GBC 8 TK & Renault GBC 180 | Renault Kerax* | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scania TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | Arquus Trapper VT4 | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Modern Trucks

Section pending completion.

India:

Tatra Prithvi | Ashok-Leyland Agni II TEL

Italy:

Iveco ACTL

Romania:

AMT 25, AMT 950, DAC, Roman, Dacia Duster.

Indonesia:

Rantis P6 ATAV

Russia:

UAZ Esaul * Kamaz 6560 * Pantsir S1

France:

Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | <Renault Kerax | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scanian TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Germany:

Mercedes 250GD Wolf | Mercedes Wolf SSA | Mercedes G300 Greenliner | VW T3/T4/T6 van | BWM G650 GS | BMW F850 GS | BMW R1150 RT | BMW R1200 RT | KTM 400LS-E BdW | LIV(SO) Serval | German quads | Faun LST50-3 Elefant | Faun STL56 Franziska | Faun SLT Mammut | RMT HX81 | SAANH 70T | Mercedes Unimog U3/4/5000 | Mercedes Zetros | MAN KAT1 | RMT Multi 2 | RMT WLS 6x6 | RMT UTF WLKS 8x8 | | MAN TGS 8x4 | MAN TGS 6x4 | MAN RMMV TGA | Mercedes Atego | Mercedes Axor | EWK M3 Amph.Rig | Liebherr FKL | Liebherr FKM | T.Faun FKS ATF 30-2 | T.Faun FKS ATF 70-4 | T.Faun FKS ATF 100-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 110-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 120-5 Obelix | Steinbrock 2.5 Y4 | Herbst-Smag Orion V | Konecrane SMV 2216 TC3 | Ahlmann AS1600 | Liebherr 574 | MAN Cobra Radar | Liebherr LTM 1050

Netherlands:

Defenture Mammoth | to come | placeholder | MLC-70 WGMST

Turkey:

United Kingdom:

RWMIK land rover | Toyota Jankel Al-Thalab | Sky Sabre | Alvis Unipower | land Rover Wolf | Land Rover Defender BFA | Alvis Supacat ATMP | Marshall Gasket 3 | MAN SV (Mark I-III)

USA:

Interim Fast Attack Vehicle | M1161 Growler | Boeing Phantom Badger | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |