Soviet Union
Heavy Truck (1976) - 10,000 built

The 6x6 Ural heavy duty beast of burden

The long legacy of ZIL (Ural)

The Ural-4320 is a general purpose off-road 6x6 vehicle, produced by the Ural Automotive Plant. The plant was created in 1941 at Miass, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the wave of moving industries to the east by Stalins order, including the giant complex of "tankograd" built at break neck speed at the foot of the Uralic mountains, far from reach by the German army. UralAZ (nothing to do with UralMash) still exist today and is a relativly healthy company which produced trucks for the military. It was a dependency of ZIL (1916), moved to this region.

During the war, the company produced notably the unbiquitous ZIS-5 (about 1 million produced), ZIS-6 used as a 6x6 base for the BM-13 Katiusha (20,000+ built) and ZIS-22/42M half-tracks series. The tradition was maintained during the cold war with a wide variety of military 4x4 and 6x6 models some used as self-propelled rocket-launchers. They have seek also ad-hoc military used as gun platforms in many conflicts around the globe, insurrections and civil wars due to its cheap and reliable base, all-terrain capabilities and heavy duty payload. Some were also armored 1 2.

Ural 375
Precursor: An east-German Ural 375

another precursor, the Zil-131 also used as the 9P138 rocket launcher system
another precursor, the Zil-131 also used as the 9P138 rocket launcher system

Development of the Ural 4320

Introduced in 1976, the 4320 is still, remarkably, in production today. The wheel arrangement was designed for heavy dury cargo, people and trailers, on roads and off-road with the adequate suspensions sytems. The vehicle is well-known to serve as a base for for the BM-21 "Grad" rocket launcher system, successor of the ww2 Katiusha. It was a diesel-powered development of the Ural-375D. The latter also called Ural-375 was produced in the 1960-70 decade and sold to 10 countries outside USSR. It was itself replacing the 1958 ZiL-157, replacing the postwar Zil 121/151. One of these developments was the BTR-152. UralAZ celebrated a total production of 530,000 trucks and 1.3 million of truck engines in 1972 and manufacture of the Ural 375H and 377H continued until 1983. In 1977 the new 5-tonne truck Ural-4320 was designed. However with the end of the cold war, and despite in 1987, UralAZ celebrated its millionth truck, the company was turned into a private venture and focalised on the civilian market.

Design of the Ural 4320

There is a single one chassis, 6x6, declined with two engines. The 11.2L YaMZ-236M2 V6 turbo diesel and 14.9L YaMZ-238M2 V8 diesel, coupled with a transmission 5-speed manual. In dimensions it was 7,366 mm (290.0 in) in lenght, 2,500 mm (98.4 in) width, and the Height was variable, from the 2,715 mm (106.9 in) in open bay, to 3,005 mm (118.3 in) with tent. Higher versions exists when the armament and armor or special cabs are used. It was still very close to the dimensions of the ZIL-131 and Ural 375D (7,350 mm x 2,960 mm x 2,980 mm, Curb weight 8,400 kg). Still very close to the model 375, the Ural 4320 had a KamAZ petrol engine which replaced the Ural-375-740 V8 diesel KamAZ (10852 cm3, 210HP). Compared to the 375:

Ural 375 specifications

  • Seating Capacity (cab): 3
  • Curb weight: 6700 kg
  • Payload: 5000 kg plus trailer 5000 kg (on road), or 3,500 kg plus trailer 4000 kg off road.
  • Suspension: solid axles with leaf springs.
  • Engine: V8 gasoline (carburetor) ZIL-130
  • Displacement: 6,960 cc (bore 3.94", stroke 4.36")
  • Compression Ratio: 6.5:1.
  • Top speed: 80 km/h
  • Brakes: drums, with pneumatic control.

Ural 4320 specifications (*Ural 375)

Cab design: Forward-mounted engine
Seating capacity (in cab): 3, 3*
GVWR: 15,300 kg (33,750 lb) or 14,975 kg (33,000 lb)*
Weight of load carried: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb) and 5,000 kg (11,000 lb)*
Suspension: Solid axles, leaf springs, rear wheels at balance-cart
GVWR of towed trailer: 11,500 kg (25,350 lb)
Top speed: 82 km/h (51 mph)/75 km/h (47 mph)*
Engine: liquid-cooled V8 diesel/V6 diesel*
Power: 240 PS/177 kW or 180 PS/132 kW*
Transmission: Five-speed gearbox, two-speed distributor box with interaxle locked differential.
Body: Metal, with tailgate, removable bows and a canopy, two foldable sides and one removable middle benches.
Seating capacity: 27
The chassis has good ground clearance, ideally suited for Siberia and bad roads in general, snow, sand or big rocks. It is supremely reliable (at least by Soviet standards, as it met little success on the export market), easy to repair and maintain. from the 1990s the Ural-4320 (and 5557) saw their headlights relocated on the bumper but after a special order for the Ministry of Defence, a narrow bumper and wing-mounted headlights both sides of the grille made their apparition on the production line.

The model is able to towing trailers or artillery pieces Western counterparts. It has a full-time all wheel drive and centralized tyre pressure system. With preparation it can ford water obstacles up to 1.75 m deep and operate in extreme climatic conditions, ranging from -50°C to +50°C.

Other facts & figures about the Ural 4320 truck

Variants of the Ural 4320

The civilian versions mostly found in the countryside and remote areas of Siberia are fire, garbage and logging trucks. The 1BA15/URB-3A3 drilling system are used for water, oil and gas drilling, also based on the same chassis. In 1981, based on a 4320 model truck 8 tons Ural-5920 was presented with a Caterpillar engine.

Ural-4320: Basic model, metal cab and 7.9 tons payload
Ural-4320-19: Long chassis, 12 tons payload (normally coupled with the YaMZ-236M2 engine.
Ural-43203: Reinforced front suspension
Ural-43204: Reinforced chassis for increased payload
Ural-43206: 4x4 with 180 hp JAMZ-236 diesel, 4200 kg payload.
Ural-43206-41: 4x4 Sub-variant with the 230 hp JAMZ-236NE2 turbodiesel
Ural-43206-0551: 4x4 variant with a 4-door cab, 3600 kg payload
Ural-44202: Truck tractor, semi-trailer 4x4 often used as logging truck.
Ural-5557/55571: 12–14 m wide chassis development and low-profile tires (CTIS) for special uses.
Ural-4320/5557 40/41 Three seat, two-door civilian cab
Ural-4320/5557-44 Same but two-door cabin and sleeping bed above
Ural-4320/5557-48/58/59 Updated model with better cabin and large volume bonnet, sprung driver's seat


Angola (Unknown), Colombia (800), Cuba (Unknown), Greece (Unknown), Guatemala (Unknown), Laos, Mexico (73 in 2008), Philippines (20 donated 2017), Russia (Unknown, about 8000+), Uruguay (36), Venezuela (320). These are all used by the military. See also:
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  • 8x8 Iveco cab Ural 5323 variant:
  • Modern one on Gazglobal: //
  • Firetruck: //
  • On sale: //,-trucks-a-bikes-3/ural-4320-and-ural-5557-138
  • Sound: //
Author's Renditions
Ural 4320
The basic vehicle, in standard configuration & open bay.

Ural 4320 converted as a FAR armored truck - Angola conflict
Angola used thse trucks in the 1980s Angola conflict with south africa, and sub-groups like FAR used them as weapon platforms, usually for ZPU AA mounts, and in this case, a rare armored APC also with a ZPU-2 Mount. Capacity seems to have been ten infantrymen. The engine front, top, and cab are all armored. A spare roadwheel is placed at the rear, one one of the two doors.

BM-21 RL
BM-21 RL
Not done yet
Canvas close cab, 4x4 russian military variant


Lenghtenend 19 Military truck
Lenghtened Ural 4320-19 version

Military logging truck
Armored Ural 4320 with modular trailer

Military logging truck
Cheremushksy's Ural 4320 6x6-trailer logging truck (Arkhangelsk_Oblast)

Armored model
6x6 armored MRAP/Police model in dislay at Interpolitex 2016, by Vitaly Kuzmin.

Armored model
6x6 4320 VV at Interpolitex

Armored model
6x6 armored cab standard KUNG, returning from a parade on May 9th, 2011 in Moscow. (For all credits : wikimedia commons)

Ural 4320 standard Military truck
Ural 4320 logging truck at Zakarpattya. Notice it's painted in factory olive green despite its civilian use.

WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
FR: Berliet CBA, Berliet Type M, Châtillon-Panhard, Latil TAR, Panhard-Genty 24 HP, Renault EG

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
-AEC Armoured Command Vehicle (415)
-AEC Matador
-Albion CX22S
-Albion FT15N
-Albion WD.CX24
-Austin K2/Y Ambulance
-Austin K3
-Austin K4
-Austin K4 Dropside
-Austin K5
-Austin K6 GS
-Austin K6 Gantry
-Bedford MW
-Bedford OXA Armoured
-Bedford OXC Semi-trailer
-Bedford OXD GS
-Bedford OYC Tanker
-Bedford OYD GS
-Bedford QL series (QLD, QLR/QLC QLT TC)
-CMP Truck
-Commer Q2
-Crossley Q-Type
-Diamond T tank transporter
-Guy Quad-Ant FAT
-Guy Lizard ACV
-Humber FWD
-Karrier KT4
-Karrier K6
-Leyland Hippo Mk I/II
-Leyland Lynx
-Leyland Retriever
-Mack EXBX
-Morris 15cwt
-Morris CDSW
-Morris ML Ambulance
-Morris C8 GS/FAT
-Morris Commercial CD series
-Morris Commercial CS8
-Morris C9
-Morris GS Terrapin
-Morris PU
-Scammell Pioneer SV1S/SV2S
-Thornycroft Hathi (1924)
-Thornycroft Nubian
-Thornycroft Tartar
French ww2 French Vehicles
-Berliet DGRA
-Berliet GDC
-Berliet GDM
-Berliet VDCA
-Berliet 30
-Bernard fuel carrier
-Citroën Kégresse P14 .
-Citroën Kégresse P17
-Citroën Kégresse P19
-Citroën Type 23
-Citroën 32U
-Citroën T45
-Fiat France 38R
-Ford France
-Hotchkiss PKW Type 680
-Hotchkiss 686
-Hotchkiss 686 PNA
-Isobloc W843M medical bus
-Laffly S15R
-Laffly S15T
-Laffly V15T
-Laffly V15R
-Laffly W15T/R
-Laffly 20TL
-Latil TAR H2
-Latil M2Tl6
-Matford F917
-Panhard K113
-Panhard K113
-Peugeot 202
-Peugeot 402
-Peugeot DMA
-Peugeot DK
-Peugeot DK5
-Renault AHS
-Renault AHN
-Renault AHR
-Renault AGC
-Renault ADK
-Renault ADH
-Renault AHSs
-Saurer type 3CT
-Simca 5 staff car
-Simca 8 staff car
-Somua MCL
-Somua MCG
-Talbot staff car
-Unic TU1
-Unic P107
-Trippel SG6
-Willeme DU10
Soviet ww2 Soviet Trucks
-GAZ AA M1927 M1932 M1941
-GAZ AAA M1937
-GAZ AAA M1940
-Ford Marmon HH6 Katiusha
-SU C-6
-Yag-10 SPG
-ZIS-33 HT
-ZIS 41 HT
-FN-Kégresse T3

Soviet staff cars
-GAZ M1 "Emka"
-GAZ 11-73
-GAZ 61-73
-GAZ 67 Amphibious armoured cars
US ww2 US Trucks
-Ford B3000 S
-Ford V3000S
-Ford V3000A,
-Ford BB
-Ford V8-51
-Ford m1931
-Ford V8 M1937
-T1E1(M1) half-track
-T5 half-track
-T7 half-track
-T9 half-track
-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
-International B2
-International model 1937
-Chevrolet m1931
-Chevrolet m1936
-Chevrolet G-506 ​1 1⁄2-ton 4x4
-Chevrolet G-7107 4-1/2 ton 4x4
-Chevrolet 3116 1-1/2 ton 4x2
-Studebaker US6x4 U7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6x6 U-5 6x4
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Ambulance
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Carry-all
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Closed Cab
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Open Cab
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton (Radio) Panel Van
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Telephone Service (K50)
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Emergency Repair
-Dodge WC-51/52 (3⁄4-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier)
-Dodge WC-53 (3⁄4-ton Carryall)
-Dodge WC-54/64 (3⁄4-ton Ambulance)
-Dodge WC-55 (3⁄4-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage)
-Dodge WC-56/57/58 (3⁄4-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance)
-Dodge WC-62/43 (G-507, 11⁄2-ton, 6x6 truck)
-Dodge M6 GMC
-GMC CCKW Cargo Truck
-GMC CCKW 353 2-1/2 Ton Truck
-GMC 1939 ACKWX 353 3 ton 6x6 truck
-GMC AFWX-353 3 ton 6x4 truck
-GMC DUKW 353 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Diamond T Model 980/981 12-ton 6x4 trucks (G159)
-Diamond T Model 968 4-ton 6x6 truck (G509)
-Diamond T Model 967
-Diamond T Model 970
-Diamond T Model 972
-Diamond M26 Dragon Wagon
-Diamond M19 Tank Transporter
-Diamond T Model 980
-Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 truck
-Autocar U8144T 5/6-ton 4x4 truck
-Brockway/LaFrance 6-ton 6x6 truck, G512, 514, 547, 569
-White/Corbitt 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-Ward LaFrance
-Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) SU-COE 5-6 ton 4x4
-White Motor Company
-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks

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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Opel Maultier
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-ОМ-32 Autocarretta da Montagna
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-Fiat 618

Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Breda Dovunque-41
-Bianchi Miles
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarreta Mod.35
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda 51
-Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 - half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 - wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars -Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M/CM Ballila
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
-Amphibious Truck "Su-Ki"

Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War