GAZ 69

Soviet Union
Light 4x4 Car (1953-72) - 600,000 built

"Kozlik", the legendary soviet cold war jeep

The GAZ-69 and GAZ-69A were the main cold war Soviet off-road military utility cars, produced from 1952 to 1973. They had been created by a team of designers of the Gorky Automobile Plant (F.A. Lependin, G.K.Shneider, B.N. Pankratov, S.G. Zislin, V.F.Filyukov, V.I. Podolsky, V.S.Soloviev, under the leadership of G.M. Wasserman). The goal was to replace the GAZ-67B. Development started already in 1946, and prototypes were produced from 1948 onwards, called "Workers". Serial production started from August 25, 1953 and went on at GAZ plant until 1956, transferred afterwards to the renamed Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant (UAZ). The GAZ-69 and its variants was popularly called "goat" or "gazik". It received hundreds of modifications either to its body (Pobeda monocoque) or equipments, taking numerous roles, including armed versions such as the 2P26 antitank version. After two decades more than 600,000 left both factories, exported to 56 countries and licenced produced by ARO in Romania and North Korea from 1962.

Design of GAZ-69

The previous GAZ-67, the "russian jeep" was design from 1942, much inspired by the lend-lease Jeep, by GAZ. It was related to the GAZ-64 (1940) of which only 840 were made, but also shared many components wit the scout armoured car BA-64. The GAZ 64B succeed in 1944 and became the main production version until 1953, with a total of 92,843 vehicle. The next GAZ 69 was to adress many issues of the open F4 layout vehicle, more enclosed and sturdies, and possibly with amphibious characteristics, better engine and improved off-road capabilities.


The previous GAZ-67B

Engine & transmission

The GAZ-69 was given an in-line 6or inline 4 cylinder engine from Gorky Automobile Plant, having similarities with the GAZ-11. Its fundamentals were:
  • Lubrication system's inertial oil air cleaner
  • Two-section cardboard automobile super-filter-sump
  • Full-flow slotted coarse filter with a sump
  • Dry, single-plate clucth.
  • 3 speed gearbox, 2 ways, synchromesh 2-3 gears
  • floor gearshift lever spec. arrangement
  • 1.15 and 2.78 gear ratios transfer case
  • Three cardan shafts
  • Conical main gear, two satellites
  • Car tire sizes - 6.50-16
  • Left Preheating boiler


gaz-69

The gearbox was essentially similar to GAZ-M-20 Pobeda car but differed by its floor gear shifting mechanism; not on the steering column as for the Pobeda. For the transfer case, the low gear (2.78) can only be engaged after engaging the front axle. There were also three cardan shafts, intermediate rear and front and the main gear was a single conical model with spiral tooth. It was coupled with a differential with two satellites and the half-axles were completely unloaded. The front axle hubs could be disengaged for slightly reducing fuel consumption on well-paved roads. The driver had for this to unscrew the protective cap with a tubular socket wrench (same to adjust the hub bearings) and connect/disconnect the coupling. On early vehicles, the torque was transmitted to the hub via a tapered “cap”. In winter, a preheating vessel mounted left, under the hood was procured, but it was still necessary to turn the steering wheel to the right for opening hatch in the fender, inserting a working blowtorch in the tube to ignite the vessel. The cooling system warmed up enough so that the engine oil was further warmed by hot gases. When the "dry" engine was heated, 5 liters of water were poured into the vessel, followed by gaz heating before starting the engine, and adding further water to the radiator. In maintenance, to retire the transfer case and gearbox the floor needed to be removed.

Body



The body of the GAZ-69 and GAZ-69A was open with a folding windshield and removable metal frame. The upper sidewalls had fittings for a foldable tarpaulin on metal arches, with inserts of transparent glass. The body was referred to as "phaeton" on the grounds of removable, and not lifting side windows. The windshield frames cooled the interior but protected poorly against road dust. The windshield could be completely folded back onto the hood brackets, fixed with hooks when in fully open, hot climate configuration. A crew heater was located in the passenger compartment, which supplied warm air to the windshield via an electric fan. Warm air was also blow to the floor, warming the feet of the driver and passenger when moving through the air intake opening, behind the hood. The hood side panels were fully removable, facilitating engine cooling in summer.



Technical schemes extracted from the original manual. Src: smcars.net

The GAZ-69 basic layout was of an eight-seater body: The driver and one passenger sat in front, and six passengers sat on two three-seat benches. Tool boxes were managed under these benches. The GAZ-69 coild also transport wounded men on a sanitary stretcher: For this, the backrest of the front passenger reclined forward and the stretcher was mounted on the passenger handrail and back. The accompanying paramedic was seated on the left side bench. The left driver's door was narrower than the right passenger door, and shaped differently. The spare wheel was located behind the driver's door, on a bracket.

Differences on the GAZ-69A: It was a four-door, five-seater. From the passenger compartment, access to the engine was dfficult. The engine used a coarse fuel filter (with a sump) and fine fuel filter mounted over the fuel pump. The driver measured the gasoline level in the main fuel tank through a dipstick behind the transfer case levers. The base GAZ-69 additional fuel tank was placed under the passenger seat, eliminated on the A type. Ventilation of the additional fuel tank went under the body floor. Refueling was done only when the passenger door was open, which was problematic in confined spaces. The instrument panel had a sensor showing the amount of fuel, but only in the main tank. For the additional tank this was manual, by checking the filler neck. There was also a fuel tank switch on the floor of the driver's seat. The chassis was also slightly inclined forward, with a front overhang angle of - 45° and rear overhang angle of - 35°.
  • Double, hinged tailgate
  • Side internal storage for towing cable, stop sign, other equipments
  • One gravity fuel tank (A), two for the GAZ-69
  • Coarse fuel filter with sump
  • Main gasoline tank sensor

Final design


GAZ-69A - The blueprints

The GAZ-19 and GAZ-19A were very close as each had a rear-wheel drive with a carrying capacity of 600 kg, same dimensions and wheelbase. The first Prototypes of both the GAZ-19 and GAZ-19A were built in Gorky, in 1955. They shared the exact same body, all-metal, with the same side doors, roof and double-leaf tailgate. The GAZ-19A however had glazing to carry extra personal at the rear. Instead of glass, the GAZ-19 stamped metal and plastic for the body panels. The GAZ-69 was more of a staff car for officers, but with possible use as urban delivery van. The GAZ-69A was more of a PC (Personal Carrier) (unarmoured).

So the base GAZ-69 featured two fuel tanks, one 47 litres (12 US gal; 10 imp gal) under the floor and one 28 litres (7 US gal; 6 imp gal) beneath the passenger's seat. All civilian models met Army requirements in case of wartime requisitions, making the hardtop version unavailable until 1993... The basic GAZ-69 only had two doors and and canvas top also covering the upper sides, plus plastic windows. In addition to the two seats in front there were two folding benches for three passengers each on the rear section, so six plus two, eight total. Much later the UAZ-69A was given four doors and a folding canvas top, plus two seats rows; It became the basis for the rear-wheel drive van GAZ-19, whih production was scheduled to start in 1955 but never passed the prototype stage. The off-road van/light truck UAZ-450 and UAZ-469 also derived from the GAZ-69.


GAZ-69 Black Fold


GAZ-69 Dahsboard


GAZ-69 engine


Engine carburettor


Engine detail


Hard Cabin


GAZ-69 Interior


Same


same, rear


Suspensions detail of the GAZ-69


Rear details of the GAZ-69A


Interior of the GAZ-69

GAZ-69 Hood Open
GAZ-69 Hood Open


GAZ-69 aft interior at the Porezany museum

Serial Production


GAZ-69 Park 1969

Serial production was hampered as dies and molds of the Gorky plant were already fully used. A number of new models were in development. The relatively small need for a vehicle of this type also played against the GAZ-69 making the production setup economically relatively unprofitable. In addition, production of the GAZ-69 was already planned for transfer to the Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant, which made the development of modifications at the Gorky plant irrational. In Ulyanovsk plant, a more advanced design was developed, soon called the UAZ-450, with a wagon layout. It compared well with the GAZ-19, between the new engine hood layout and somewhat irrational body length which looked rather outdated. Subsequently, a small-scale production chassis was deployed.

The GAZ-69 in service

The GAZ-69 became the basic light off-road vehicle of the Soviet Army. In about ten years, it replaced the previous GAZ-67s and lend-lease WW2 Willys Jeep. They served bot as light transport and staff cars unti replaced by the UAZ-469 in the 1960s. The GAZ-69 was a softskin vehicle, unarmed (outside personal weaponry). Indeed, able to carry eight personal, so a half-section, armed with Kalashnikov and Manpads was still quite an ofensive proposition. However the GAZ-69 was also used as the basis for the 2P26 light tank destroyer (see below) and GAZ-46 MAV, a light 4x4 amphibious vehicle inspired by the WW2 Ford GPA 'Seep' also provided by lend-lease.

Variants of the GAZ-69

GAZ-69
GAZ-69

UAZ-69 in 1958
UAZ-69 in 1958

UAZ 69 A
UAZ 69 A

UAZ-69
UAZ-69

GAZ-69

Basic vehicle, 2 doors, 2+6 men (2 seats, 2 banks), 2 fuel tanks, canvas top, unarmed.

GAZ-69A

4 doors, folding canvas top, 2 rows of seats.

UAZ-69

Same as the 2-door GAZ-69 but made by UAZ.

2P26

Antitank version developed between 1957 and 1960, produced from 1961. Called 2P26 (GRAU), carrying the 3M6 Shmel ATGM (AT-1 Snapper ATGM). The aft part of the vehicle has a flatbed on which was installed up to six launching rails, mounted on a pivot allowing traverse and elevation. The mount culd be entirely covered by the tarpauling to disguise its true purpose. It offered an excellent mobility and antitank capability to Paratroopers. This version will be covered in detail in a dedicated post.
GAZ 2P26 Tank destroyer, armed with the 3M6 Shmel (AT-1 Snapper).

GAZ-46 MAV

The military amphibious car, which will be covered in detail in its own post. It was given a boat-like hull and sealing around the chassis, a4 cyl petrol, 2112cc GAZ-69 engine, vcoupled with the same 3-speed manual transmission with 2-speed transfer case, but of course was much heavier, with degraded performances as the base vehicle was already plagued by a low power-to-weight ratio with a weight of 1270 kg (GVW: 1770 kg). It was propelled in water with a PTO propeller drive. It shoud be noted that like the US, the Soviet army also wanted an amphibious truck, which became the BAV, copy of the DUKW.

The GAZ-46 was the Soviet cold war equivalent to the WW2 US Ford GPA, the infamous "seep".

Export and military use

The simplicity and low cost of the vehicle allows exports to take place in the follwing countries (in addition to delivery to the Warsaw Pact countries): Bulgaria, Cambodia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Egypt, Hungary, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel (Captured), Poland, Syria, Vietnam. They saw action in the two 1967 and 1973 middle east wars with Israel, in Cyprus, during the iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, Indonesian civil war, and Vietnam war. Some were even seen in action in the Syrian conflict recently, including with ad-hoc conversions. In Romania it was even produced under licence as the IMS-57, M59, ARO M461, and later in Indonesia as the Kaengsaeng 68 and Sungri 4.10/4.25.

Debunking the myth

(Translation and adaptation of sovietauto.fr) Nowadays, the GAZ-69 is experiencing a second peak in popularity: It is the star of classic car encounters or the guest of honor on off-road trips. A new version would be produced as announced in small series. Isn't that too much for old "Kozlik"?
The GAZ-69 has often been profoundly modified: Adapted to modern life, with manny amenities and features to facilitate maintenance and repairs. Why GAZ-69 owners are so proud of their 4x4 ? Why seven facts are still high among them ?. Debunk time !

N°1: The GAZ-69 is a true go-anywhere.

It seems true, even with its standard factory tires, offering an excellent all-terrain handling without adopting modern accessories. In a short range test, it is able to cross with confidence a 35 to 40 cm (2+ feets) deep marsh over a mile, and even pick up speed doing so. It is all possible due to the ingenious of transmission and the engine's very high torque at low speed. In addition to its front axle, the "Kozlik"'s two-speed transfer case shows short range gears having a ratio of 1.15 to 2.78. The vehicle was able to climb without hesitation a 8% snowy slope on the rear axle alone. After engaging the front axle the grip was even better an the vehicle was able to climb faster. The torque helped in this, with 123 Nm from 2,000 rpm. Fresh snow drive is smooth, whatever bumpy the terrain was, snowdrift is absent and the vehicle is able to keep the same pace while being straight. While shaking a lot in the process... Not only it coudld still run through 50 to 60 cm of snow but also water without preparation and when the fan belt was removed and gauge sealed tight, it could even ford a 80 cm deep river. The high ground clearance (211 mm at the lowest point) and angles of attack of 48° front, 37° rear also helped its off-road performances. By comparison the WW2 Jeep had 49° and 35° respectively. The main critic was its low power ratio of only 28.4 hp per tonne and limited tires choice (without central inflation system) were available. They proved unsuitable for compact snow, watery swamps and others. Both were detrimental in the 1970s when better, more mopdular vehicles were on offer.

N°2: The world's best 4x4 in 1960-70

Untrue, but granted, probably in the top two or three. It never was popular as some of its competition, but didn't need it, USSR being cutoff for said international (and western) competition. USSR indeed absorbed almost all of its production already and countries that adopted it could not afford that same competition. In the 1950s, it actually had few direct competitors other than the Willys CJ-3, Land Rover Series 1 and Toyota BJ. Indonesia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Algeria or Egypt alla dpted the vehicles and only saw its strengths, but they still carried out comparative tests with western or asian vehicles. In terms of comfort it might be surprising that the GAZ-69 outclassed the competition with its metal doors, heater. But still, it lacked door seals or a slot in the tarpaulin to adjust the search light from the interior in extreme cold.

N°3: The "goat" ("Kozlik") nickname

There was a reason behind this nickname of the "the goat". Main reason were some aspects of the suspension tuning and relatively short wheelbase. On small bumps and during hard braking, the vehicle was known to jerk back and forth a bit like a goat... Its primitive lever shocks were unable to dampen these movements while the short wheelbase brought no stabilization on the road. The UAZ-469 replacing the GAZ was unable to solve this peculiar caracteristic at the time common to all Soviet military light off-road vehicles, but also shared by early Land Rovers.

N°4: A pure military vehicle

Partially true. One one hand it was clearly designed for the armed forces. The humongus Soviet conventional ground forces of the 1960s could easily absorv all these. The tests and specs were all military-grade and between the factory and ministry, all were done under supervision of the Army and using military trailers like the GAZ-704 500 kg field canteen, light artillery and wheeled mortrars. The basic GAZ-69 was indeed used as a light towing vehicle and personnel carrier for eight total, a command vehicle and radio liaison vehicle as well. As a staff car it was perhaps too crude for upper officers... There was also an anti-tank missile carrier. The GAZ-69 was also extensively used in combat, during the Greek-Turkish was in Cyprus. It was also used a demining vehicle, mobile radio stations, guide vehicle on airfields and many other tasked adapted later. The "worker", nickname of the 1949 prototype, indicates its off-road capabilities were focused for the national economy and it was indeed used in civilian life, and beloved in deep countryside and in Siberia. Presidents of collective farms liked to use it, as well as agronomists and party workers. It was also a status symbol in a sense for these. Now it is retired in most militaries, more are found in private hands than the army.

N°5: A terrible canvas roof

True, and it's an understatement. However this critic should be recast while taking into account all of its peculiarities. Most GAZ-69 soft top were linked to its military service, and even all civilian versions were to be mobilized in case of war. Folding the windshield and the roof cover enable the vehicle became to be more conspicuous and a more difficult target to spot. It also allowed a rapid disembakation of the infantry. This tarpaulin was barely waterproof, and rapidly while driving under the rain the interior was soaked due to the absence of sealing around the canvas, while there were drafts inside the passenger compartment. Also, the loose fitting and air intakes made the interior particularly noisy above 40 kph to the point shouting was the only option. Specialized worked on these aspects recently, and notably hard roofs in small series were proposed for the police and medical services. The "hardtop" was not a military version, but a recent, civilian one. There was even a pilot GAZ-19 postal van designed for siberia but never produced. Instead, the UAZ “Bukhanka” was chosen.

N°6: The GAZ-69 could fly

True, as the GAZ-69 was designed for the military, including the Soviet forces habit ot "deep battle" paradrop tactics. Soon it was tested to be parachuted, helped by its low height, roof folded down. It was loaded into even light transport planes and helicopter, providing an excellent long range tactical mobility. Even the small MIL Mi-4 was designed to lift this vehicle. Paradropping preparations includd removing the spare wheel and bumper, installing the vehicle on a special wooden platform with many straps with rubber damper to land on any type of surface.

N°7: The GAZ-69 could swim

The base version could ford up to 80 cm (3 feets) but there was even a true amphibious version developed as the GAZ-46, or "MAV", to carry military engineers on all watery terrains, like the Pripet marshes. It was produced for only five years, 1953-1958, stopped when production of the GAZ-69 was transferred to Ulyanovsk, UAZ declining to assemble the amphibious version without serious retolling and new equipments.

N°8: Easy to maintain even under the worst climates

The GAZ-69 was designed to operate far away for repair facilities, out in the open on the most unforgiving terrain and under all climates, particularly sub-zero temparatures. And that included the north pole. The existing habit of Soviet engineers to simplify the design to its spartan core helped reduced the cost (production being always privileged above quality since Lenin said quantity was a quality). So the number of complex components and parts were kept to the strict minimum. Maintenance operations were all carried out on the field with limited support, in in agricultural machinery stations and private garages. This ease and simplicity was of course strong selling point. In addition to keep the price down, the GAZ-69 was composed of "off-the-shelf" readily available parts whenever possible. The engine, transmission, brakes, suspension all were developed from other vehicles. This reduced also the development time, avoided potential design flaws and teething probkems, but also greatly simplified the supply and maintenance chain. It was a good sample of the technical culture in USSR of that time. Read also the original source in Russian.

Read More

https://www.gaz69.org/
http://gvtm.ru/gaz-69
https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%90%D0%97-69
https://encyclopedie-des-armes.com/index.php/unites-mobiles/vehicule-leger-moderne/857-gaz-69
http://www.krasnayazvezda.com/terre/materiels/4x4/gaz69.php
https://autoclassics.us/e/gaz-69-history/
http://www.gaz69.org/gaz/HistoryEN.html
https://1cars.org/898-gaz-69-specifications-review-photo-video-price.html
https://www.curbsideclassic.com/blog/cohort-sighting-gaz-69-the-russian-jeep/

Ware, Pat. The World Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles (Lorenz Books, 2010), p. 177.
"ГАЗ 46". Retrieved 2 August 2021.
Thompson, Andy. Cars of the Soviet Union (Haynes Publishing, Somerset, UK, 2008), p. 70.
"The history of the development of the GAZ-69" (in Russian). www.off-road-drive.ru.
IMS M461, "Avtolegendy SSSR i Socstran" No. 168, DeAgostini 2015, ISSN 2071-095X (in Russian), p.3-6
Thompson, p. 176.
René Pohl: Mit dem Auto baden gehen. HEEL Verlag, Gut-Pottscheidt Konigswinter 1998
Andreev, Konstantin (in Russian). GAZ-46, "Avtolegendy SSSR" Nr 100, DeAgostini 2012

Gallery


Basic Gaz-69


GAZ-69 with open bay


East German version


GAZ-69 with a sand tarpaulin


Polish GAZ-69


GAZ-69A





UAZ-69


GAZ-69M


GAZ-69 in Iraq



Albanian vehicle


GAZ-69 at the Bialystok Muzeum


Model of the Polish Border Police used during the movie Black Thursday in Gdynia


Same, Border Protection Forces, Szklarska


Vehicle of the Border Protection Forces polish in 1970-1979


Destruction in the al-Qunaytra village Golan Heights 1974, a Gaz-69 suspended


Finnish Gaz-69, with many modifications


Finnish Radio Version AS-351


GAZ-69 with white parade tires


GAZ-69


East German Gaz-69

Rear of a GAZ-69, showing the bedframe
Rear of a GAZ-69, showing the bedframe.


GAZ-69 mobility river crossing


Hungarian vehicle with parade tires


Back of the same


GAZ-69 Iceland 1968


GAZ-69 in Iraq


GAZ-69 at Victory Parade Day, 2010


GAZ-69 in parade


GAZ-69 at Fort Va Poznan


GAZ-69 at the National Musem of Transportation of St Louis


Gaz-69 at Patriot Park 2015


GAZ-69 in Poland


Border Police model


Gaz-69 in Syria Farah Pahlavi


Gaz-69 with the Warsaw Police


Hungarian vehicle


Hungarian vehicle close to a FUG-2


Vehicle with the Indonesian Sunagan Air Jalesveva


Israli soldiers driving a captured Gaz-69


Border Police 1972


Polish GAZ-69




Camouflaged, customized vehicle at Jaworzno rally in 2008


GAZ-69 SAF


NVA Gaz-69 at Graested Veterantraef 2014


Czech gaz-69 at Radern und Ketten 2011 Wien


GAZ-69, 1964 owned by Rene Vosters


GAZ-69 with a dubious camouflage. Apart sand beige versions exported in middle-east countries, the Finnish vehicles, and those painted with wahsable whiyte for winter manoeuver, photo evidence only showed olive green vehicles. In some case, the tarpaulin color would change, from sand beige to green or even light blue.

Read more/Src

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:GAZ-69
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/GAZ-69

WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
FR: Berliet CBA, Berliet Type M, Châtillon-Panhard, Latil TAR, Panhard-Genty 24 HP, Renault EG

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
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-Austin K4
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-Austin K5
-Austin K6 GS
-Austin K6 Gantry
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-Commer Q2
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-Leyland Hippo Mk I/II
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-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks


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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Opel Maultier
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-Breda-32
-Breda-40
-Breda-41
-ОМ-32 Autocarretta da Montagna
-ОМ-36DM
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-SPA CL39
-SPA ТМ40
-Fiat 618

Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Breda Dovunque-41
-Bianchi Miles
-Ceirano-50СМ
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-SPA-38R
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-FIAT-633NM
-FIAT-634N
-FIAT-666
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarreta Mod.35
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda 51
-Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 - half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 - wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars -Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M/CM Ballila
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
-Amphibious Truck "Su-Ki"

Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War