Autocarro Pesante Unificato Lancia 3Ro

Italian army vehicles Italy (1938-43) - Heavy Truck - 9,490 built

The vehicle, Series 464 in the company's internal nomenclature, was born at the end of 1937 as if to meet the civil and military needs of heavy transport, as an evolution of the previous Lancia Ro. It was acquired by the Royal Army in 1938, which used it on all fronts of the Second World War in 9,490 units, in addition to the 1,500 civilian ones requisitioned. In service, it proved to be an exceptionally robust and reliable vehicle in all types of climates, and the Germans also loved it for the same qualities. Indeed, after the armistice, production went on under German supervision. The Wehrmacht in northern italy and the Balkans used 772 Lancia 3Ro according to the listed number plates. A batch of 100 trucks was also produced with the standardized German wooden wartime "Einheits" cab. After the war, the 3Ro remained in service with the Italian Army until 1965, a testimony of its qualities.

Factory photo at Lancia of the base military model
Factory photo at Lancia of the base military model


The engine is at the front, a Lancia type 102 diesel, four-stroke, 5 cylinders in line. It develops a total capacity of 6875 cm³ for an output of 93 hp at 1860 rpm. Initially it had an inertia flywheel starter with flexible coupling, and a manual front crank system to launch it. For the suviving vehicles after the war it was replaced by and electric starter. There is a 12V electrical system which only feed the lighting and signaling, and a Marelli D90R3 12/1100 dynamo but no battery. The rear drive use a long transmission shaft, with manually lockable differential. The meachanical gearbox offered a normal four speed and reverse gear, plus 4 reduced-speed and reduced reverse with dry single-plate clutch.

This power is passed onto the ground by four spoked steel wheels (deeper aft) fitted with 270 X 20 tires. These are twin tires on the rear axle, but all four are equipped with leaf spring suspensions and expanding shoe type brakes. The latter are acting on the four wheels, with two separate circuits for the pedal and lever. The frame is made up of straight steel side members connected by 5 welded, and 2 bolted cross members supporting the engine. Its step is 4.30 m.

The military cabin is standard, bacjwards type and supplied by Viberti, with a single right-hand drive seat and large left seat (enough for two or more). It also have movable windshields hinged at the top, and half doors without side windows. The Germans standardized on these their own cabin caled "Einheits" in wood to save metal. The vehicle is normally used for transport in its own large flatbed, but has a towing capacity as at the rear a 9500 kg winch is welded. For towing a trailer a hitch it is fitted with a Marelli-type compressed air brake which can also be used to inflate tires. The 3Ro had a remarkable capacity: It could carry 32 equipped soldiers (about the size of an Italian 1940 HQ platoon, 1 officer and 28 men), or 6390 kg of cargo, materials and ammunition. It was also used as a base for many self-propelled vehicles, a workshop, a military bus, a command car, a tank transporter among others. A batallion was 876 strong, so could be transported by 30 trucks (27 + three for supplies) src.

Blueprint of the type


The first series called "464" was produced from 1938 to 1946. It was characterized by its "short" wheelbase, only 4.30 m. The "564 series" was produced from 1938 to 1943 with a 4.79 m wheelbase. The 266 series is characterized by a long wheelbase of 4.85 m. 611 were produced from 1939 to 1949. From 1941, 142 of the 466 series were produced with the same long wheelbase, and power supply using gasogen. The 566 serie was produced after the war, from 1945 to 1947. It has an electric starter, lager width at 2.5 meters, fitted with a new disc braking system and "full floating" rear axle instead.


  • 3Ro NM (564B): Military truck (diesel) produced in 9,490 units from 1938 to 1943, 4,300 mm (169.3 in) wheelbase
  • Civilian 3Ro (564): Identical chassis, gasoline engine, 1,307 units until 1945
  • 3Ro 564C: Modified with trailer, 1936-1947: 3,336 made.
  • 3Ro P* (266P): Stretched chassis - buses/coaches 4,850 mm (190.9 in) WB**
  • 3Ro PL* (266PL): Same but 5,600 mm (220.5 in) WB
  • 3Ro BM (564B): Benzina Militare (petrol-engine), production 1943-1945, 408***
  • Esaro: Short WB of 3,650 mm (143.7 in), 2000 made 1943-46, 21 diesels in 1946.
*Production 1939-1949: 837 total **In 1941 some 3Ro 266P were built with a Tipo 102C natural gas engine developed from the inline-five diesel (four valves per cylinder). ***The Tipo 102B inline-five petrol was derived from the diesel, with 16-valve heads. ****5-cylinder petrol and diesel engines. 650 mm (25.6 in) shorter wheelbase than the standard 3Ro.

Lancia Esaro 90/53
Lancia Esaro 90/53

3Ro blindato APC
Lancia 3Ro Blindato APC, partially armored, used by German troops in 1944 - From


The load-bearing frame structure allowed a large number of variants and fittings, some created in the field or in specialized body shops. On the 3Ro chassis, Viberti, Zagato and others adapted their own cabins and built notably buses for the civilian market. The 3Ro P version (1940) met success. From 1942, the Lancia Esaro was developed with a shorter wheelbase. There was a single fully armored version (article here), called the Lancia 3ro blindato. Only two were converted by the Italian Social Republic (RSI) army, and especially tthe two converted armored cars went to the Camice Nere’(Black Shirts). Two were built by the Arsenal of Piacenza, and served in 1944-45 with XXXVI° Brigata Nera “Natale Piacentini and XXVIII° Brigata Nera “Pippo Astorri”. Other variants were partially armored, and served with both the Germans and Italian infantry.
  • Basic version: Wooden flatbed plus arched frame, 4.79 m wheebase.
  • Viberti fuel tanker (5000 liter tank)
  • Viberti water tanker (5000 liter/two 2000 liter tanks)
  • Mobile workshop Modello 38
  • Mobile office (with trailer). One was was donated in 1941 by the Italian Command to General Erwin Rommel.
  • Ammunition carrier for 90/53 gun batteries: Four metal containers, 210 shells.
  • Artillery tractor: Towing a standard artillery piece in two and crew, plus crew and ammo supplies in the flatbed.
  • Horse transport: Raised sides, side rails and loading platforms laterally hooked onto the sides (7 horses)
  • Tank transporter: Directly or towing Viberti/Bartoletti type fifth wheel trailers.
  • Self-propelled anti-aircraft (Breda 20/65 Mod. 1935).
  • 90/53 autocannon
  • 100/17 autocannon
  • 3Ro Blindado

Portamunizioni (ammo carrier version)

Blueprint of the autocannone 90/53 su Lancia Ro

Operational use

This truck became the standard troop carrier whenever available, also largely used by the Germans when available in North Africa. Also during that time, both in North Africa and Sicily self-propelled arillery versions were converted: The top of the cab was cut away, sideboards made lower, and with it, the Lancia 3 Ro became a self-propelled gun (portee) for the Cannone da 90/53 and the WW1-vintage 100/17 howitzer. The Germans used it in Sicily and in Italy as well, and this included the versions they produced (Einheits cabin). In fact after the Italian armistice (September 1943), the Wehrmacht cpatured all the Lancia Ro and 3Ro thy could to moorize their infantry in Italy. In April 1944, they gave an order to the Lancia factory they controlled, for 772 3Ro. Production went on from January 1944 to February 1945. The cold war Italian army also used the 3Ro in its late production versions, and the last one was retired only in 1964. Some have been preserved since.

Back of the 90/53

Links about the Lancia 3ro

lancia 3ro
Hungarian use, in Polish
Web archive (V. Bourguignon)
On O5M6
In french (archive)
On the 90/53 portee
In french
Lancia forum

Pignacca, Brizio (2003). Ruote in divisa: un secolo di veicoli militari (1st ed.). Vimodrone (Milan): Giorgio Nada Editore.
Condolo, Massimo (2001). Camion Lancia (1st ed.). Fondazione Negri.
Storia illustrata del camion italiano. Edizione Neri.
Pignato, Nicola; Cappellano, Filippo (2002). Gli autoveicoli da combattimento dell’esercito italiano, vol. 1/2 (1st ed.). Rome: USSME.
Ceva, L.; Curami, A. La meccanizzazione dell'esercito fino al 1943. USSME.
Pignato, Nicola. Gli autoveicoli del Regio Esercito nella seconda guerra mondiale. Storia Militare.
Riccio, Ralph; Pignato, Nicola. Italian Truck Mounted Artillery: In Action. In Action Series. Squadron/Signal Publications.
Amatori, Franco; et al. (1992). Storia della Lancia — Impresa Tecnologie Mercati 1906–1969. Milan.

Lancia 3Ro M specifications

Dimensions7,084 mm, Width 2,350 mm, Height 3,000 mm.
Total weight, battle ready4.135 kg (no payload)
Crew2 (driver, co-driver) + 32 troops
PropulsionLancia 102N, 5 cylinders diesel 6 875 cm3, 93 ch/1.860 rpm
Top speed45 km/h (30 mph) road
Payload7.365 kg and 12 tonnes max overall ( lbs)
Transmission & suspension4 + 1 speed, leaf spring
Maximum range (on/off road)450 km (cons. 24 liters/100 km)
ArmamentNone, used as SPG
Armor6 to 8 mm (0.2-0.3 in)
ProductionSee notes, above 9,000

Reference illustrations

Standard truck fresh from the factory in regular army olive green, 1939. The wooden rear open trunk is not yet assembled












Autocannone-da 100-17-su-Lancia-3Ro
Autocannone da 100/17 su Lancia 3Ro, batterie volanti, Reparto Esplorante Corpo d’Armata di Manovra, Libya, 1941.

Autocannone 90/53 su Lancia 3Ro, DI Gruppo, 132 Artillery Regiment, 132 Ariete Armored Division, Egypt, 1942.

ame in green livery, Sicily, 1943
Same in green livery, Sicily, 1943

Lancia 3Ro Autofficina
Lancia 3Ro Autofficina (Mobile command post)

Lancia 3Ro Blindato
Lancia 3Ro Blindato wit the "black brigade" in 1944. Illustration by Yuvnashva Sharma.


WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
FR: Berliet CBA, Berliet Type M, Châtillon-Panhard, Latil TAR, Panhard-Genty 24 HP, Renault EG

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
-AEC Armoured Command Vehicle (415)
-AEC Matador
-Albion CX22S
-Albion FT15N
-Albion WD.CX24
-Austin K2/Y Ambulance
-Austin K3
-Austin K4
-Austin K4 Dropside
-Austin K5
-Austin K6 GS
-Austin K6 Gantry
-Bedford MW
-Bedford OXA Armoured
-Bedford OXC Semi-trailer
-Bedford OXD GS
-Bedford OYC Tanker
-Bedford OYD GS
-Bedford QL series (QLD, QLR/QLC QLT TC)
-CMP Truck
-Commer Q2
-Crossley Q-Type
-Diamond T tank transporter
-Guy Quad-Ant FAT
-Guy Lizard ACV
-Humber FWD
-Karrier KT4
-Karrier K6
-Leyland Hippo Mk I/II
-Leyland Lynx
-Leyland Retriever
-Mack EXBX
-Morris 15cwt
-Morris CDSW
-Morris ML Ambulance
-Morris C8 GS/FAT
-Morris Commercial CD series
-Morris Commercial CS8
-Morris C9
-Morris GS Terrapin
-Morris PU
-Scammell Pioneer SV1S/SV2S
-Thornycroft Hathi (1924)
-Thornycroft Nubian
-Thornycroft Tartar
French ww2 French Vehicles
-Berliet DGRA
-Berliet GDC
-Berliet GDM
-Berliet VDCA
-Berliet 30
-Bernard fuel carrier
-Citroën Kégresse P14 .
-Citroën Kégresse P17
-Citroën Kégresse P19
-Citroën Type 23
-Citroën 32U
-Citroën T45
-Fiat France 38R
-Ford France
-Hotchkiss PKW Type 680
-Hotchkiss 686
-Hotchkiss 686 PNA
-Isobloc W843M medical bus
-Laffly S15R
-Laffly S15T
-Laffly V15T
-Laffly V15R
-Laffly W15T/R
-Laffly 20TL
-Latil TAR H2
-Latil M2Tl6
-Matford F917
-Panhard K113
-Panhard K113
-Peugeot 202
-Peugeot 402
-Peugeot DMA
-Peugeot DK
-Peugeot DK5
-Renault AHS
-Renault AHN
-Renault AHR
-Renault AGC
-Renault ADK
-Renault ADH
-Renault AHSs
-Saurer type 3CT
-Simca 5 staff car
-Simca 8 staff car
-Somua MCL
-Somua MCG
-Talbot staff car
-Unic TU1
-Unic P107
-Trippel SG6
-Willeme DU10
Soviet ww2 Soviet Trucks
-GAZ AA M1927 M1932 M1941
-GAZ AAA M1937
-GAZ AAA M1940
-Ford Marmon HH6 Katiusha
-SU C-6
-Yag-10 SPG
-ZIS-33 HT
-ZIS 41 HT
-FN-Kégresse T3

Soviet staff cars
-GAZ M1 "Emka"
-GAZ 11-73
-GAZ 61-73
-GAZ 67 Amphibious armoured cars
US ww2 US Trucks
-Ford B3000 S
-Ford V3000S
-Ford V3000A,
-Ford BB
-Ford V8-51
-Ford m1931
-Ford V8 M1937
-T1E1(M1) half-track
-T5 half-track
-T7 half-track
-T9 half-track
-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
-International B2
-International model 1937
-Chevrolet m1931
-Chevrolet m1936
-Chevrolet G-506 ​1 1⁄2-ton 4x4
-Chevrolet G-7107 4-1/2 ton 4x4
-Chevrolet 3116 1-1/2 ton 4x2
-Studebaker US6x4 U7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6x6 U-5 6x4
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Ambulance
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Carry-all
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Closed Cab
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Open Cab
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton (Radio) Panel Van
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Telephone Service (K50)
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Emergency Repair
-Dodge WC-51/52 (3⁄4-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier)
-Dodge WC-53 (3⁄4-ton Carryall)
-Dodge WC-54/64 (3⁄4-ton Ambulance)
-Dodge WC-55 (3⁄4-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage)
-Dodge WC-56/57/58 (3⁄4-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance)
-Dodge WC-62/43 (G-507, 11⁄2-ton, 6x6 truck)
-Dodge M6 GMC
-GMC CCKW Cargo Truck
-GMC CCKW 353 2-1/2 Ton Truck
-GMC 1939 ACKWX 353 3 ton 6x6 truck
-GMC AFWX-353 3 ton 6x4 truck
-GMC DUKW 353 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Diamond T Model 980/981 12-ton 6x4 trucks (G159)
-Diamond T Model 968 4-ton 6x6 truck (G509)
-Diamond T Model 967
-Diamond T Model 970
-Diamond T Model 972
-Diamond M26 Dragon Wagon
-Diamond M19 Tank Transporter
-Diamond T Model 980
-Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 truck
-Autocar U8144T 5/6-ton 4x4 truck
-Brockway/LaFrance 6-ton 6x6 truck, G512, 514, 547, 569
-White/Corbitt 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-Ward LaFrance
-Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) SU-COE 5-6 ton 4x4
-White Motor Company
-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks

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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Opel Maultier
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-ОМ-32 Autocarretta da Montagna
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-Fiat 618

Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Breda Dovunque-41
-Bianchi Miles
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarreta Mod.35
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda 51
-Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 - half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 - wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars -Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M/CM Ballila
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
-Amphibious Truck "Su-Ki"

Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War