Type 95 Kurogane

Imperial Japanese Army IJA (1934) - 4,700 built until 1944
Certainly among the cutest military vehicles of WW2, the little Kurogane was designed in 1934 for the Imperial Japanese Army as a scout car by Tokyu Kurogane Industries, and some 4,700 were manufactured from 1936 to 1944. It mostly served in China but also took part in the Burma and Philippines campaign among others. The rest of the park was made of civilian cars. It was one of the world's first four-wheel drive passenger vehicle, beating the iconic Jeep by a few years, was produced to c4700 and existed in 2-door roadster, 2-door pickup truck and 4-door phaeton variants.

Development of the Type 95 Kurogane


Rival Mitsubishi PX33, too complex for mass production for the IJA

The Type 95 was designed in 1934 after a request from the Japanese Imperial Army. Further back in time, it came from the 1928 Military Automobile Subsidy Act, officially establishing the Japanese automobile industry. Annual production started initially at 460 vehicles and grew to 43,551 in 1940. The Military after the Manchurian incident asked a small all-terrain vehicle capable of both reconnaissance and liaison, personnel transport. Toyota was contracted for the task, but this was the final industrial bases, as development was spread between Hatsudoki Seizo at Rikuo for Internal Combustion Engine, Okamoto plus Kurogane to create the prototype vehicle. The Toyota G1 was initially designed with Okamoto Bicycle and Automobile Manufacturing, already charged of bicycles for the Imperial Japanese Navy and created a first Japanese-built internal combustion engine ready for production by 1936.

It was driven mostly by operations in Mainland China that required a four-wheel drive vehicle to offer greater mobility in a less well covere infrastructure, a network of dust tracks rather than proper roads like in Japan. In 1934 Mitsubishi also participated in the effort but under private venture. They designed the PX33, a prototype four-door and four-wheel-drive sedan, powered by a 6.7-litre 4-cyl. diesel engine, plus three more until the programme was cancelled as the Army stuck to Toyota.



At the time the Kurogane Type 95 was designed, the Army already had the Type 93 motorcycle, a side car, plus the Type 97 motorcycle, Harley-Davidson under licence. The army a larger, but still minimalistic passenger car to replace motorcycles used for personnel transport with four-wheel-drive, but Japan's manufacturing infrastructure mainly focused on ships and aircraft, notably through Mitsubishi, the only one that as trusted for tank production. Toyota became later the premier passenger car manufacturer of the archipelago to be later chosen to manufacture some 5,000 vehicles despite Japan's lack of raw materials. There was no time to create an assembly line either.

But for the vehicle to happen, the four wheel drive was to be first manufactured in Japan. Tetsuji Makita, of the Japanese Internal Combustion Engine Company was in charge of the engine, a brillant auto engineer of the early interwar years, associated with Toyogawa Hayataya for the first Japanese production car, the "Otomo", built at Hakuyosha. This leading manufacturer also produced rickshaws, tricycles and competed in 1930 with Datsun and Mazda as well as Mitsubishi, "Hope" Automobile Company (Suzuki postwar). In this "New Era", the Japanese Internal Combustion Engine Company was later renamed Kurogane (old term for "iron").

The company was tasked to create a vehicle barely larger than a sidecar and that will consume as little raw materials as possible. To keep it compact (spec width 1.3 meters or 51.2 in) it only had three seats, two in front and one intermediate forward. However to preserve the center of gravity it was ported to 1,500 mm (59.1 in) during development. In all, four models were buiult until 1944 when production was stopped as it was not considered strategically sound anymore. It was declined successively and in parallel as the three-seater Type A, the moder conventional two doors four seats body type B and the Pickup type C. Cmpared to its contemporaries the Kubelwagen and Jeep it had its pros and cons.

Design of the Type 95 Kurogane


Original Plans

The vehicle in its first production model was inded a three-seater (later called Model A) and the body was almost door-less one, thought to be easier to built. The body indeed plunged downwards making for short, light doors that could be optionally almost jumped over (hinging forward) and the body bumped upwards to the rear around the third seat with free space for some gear behind the fwd seats, and a folded canvas roof. Indeed, to spare metal, rigid roofs were not required, but were adopted only for the Type C pickup later. The ladder frame chassis had to provide all the strenght against torsion.

The bonnet was classic in shape, more conventional and streamlined and there were curved mudguards fore and aft. The end looked nicely rounded and spare wheel could be instaled over it. The Kurogane's backbone started with a narrow steel cruciform ladder frame chassis, 1.5 meters track and 2 meters (78.7 in) wheelbase only. Its rear axle used a solid differential and rested on a semi-elliptical leaf springs, whereas front wheels used coil springs instead ad well as double wishbone independent front suspension for better agility off-road.

Engine



In the development stages as operations went on in mandchuria from 1931, it was planned to fight the cold with a better suited horizontally opposed engine. But as the army wanted one that can be easy to maintain and durable, a flat engine was preferrable and procured all the torque needed for an all four wheels drive. Instead of water it was chosen to use Air cooling instead to face wide, dry expanses. The company had experience with motorcycles and that confoiguration opened a lot of possibilities for complementary parts.

What was used in the end, and gave the vehicle its so unique sound, was the Kurogane V1-AF motorcycle engine. It was a V-2 OVH with bank angle of 45°, and with forced air-cooling. It had a capacity of 1.3 – 1.4 Liters and developed 32.5 bhp) at 3,300rpm (33 PS/24.3 kW) in a simple design, under influence of the Sunbeam Motorcycle engine. It shared also many parts and design commonalities with single-cylinder engine used on motorcycle JAC Zaimasu. It could be started with a handcrank as backup for the eletric starter.

The V-twin engine proved more practical, but used a propeller fan to force airflow across the cylinders and used a dry sump oil lubrication. The carburetor was basically a copy of the Wheeler-Schebler modell, single barrel just in between the V-bank for equal left-right distributions to each bank via a crossflow cylinder head. The engine was suspended rather than mounted, just above the front wheel differential, with the transmission behind to make it more compact but this also gave it a higher center of gravity. The transfer case provided power to the front wheels below the engine. This arrangement also helped keeping the engine above water when crossing a river but those also caused a higher engine vibration.

The transmission used three forward speeds, one reverse gear, on the rear wheels. Universal joints were used to engage the front wheels. The transfer case thus could be used to temporarily engage front wheels if needed. There were drum brakes on the rear axle only. For autonomy, the Kurogane came with a 48 L (13 US gal; 11 imp gal) gas tank supplemented by a 4 L (1 US gal; 1 imp gal) tank in reserve and a total of 13.18 km/L (37.2 mpg/imp and 31.0 mpg/US) for a top speed on paved roads of 75 km/h (46.6 mph) and driving range of 450 kilometres (279.6 mi). It had 6.00-18 in tyres, large in proportion.

Variants

Assembly was almost by hand so minor changes could be made after production started ibn 1936 with relative ease, and many issues of the early Kurogane were ironed out. The early prototype two-door enclosed sedan was made a roadster tp sparer material, with minor body changes made over the years. The cheaper Type A from 1943 missed doors, while the canvas roof was generalized to the four-door vehicles achieved lower top weight and showed flexibility in tropical terrain. In all, 4,775 cars were built with mechanical and body adjustments until 1944. The bumbers for example were simple standard steel piping. There were two standard lights with folding shield for low visibility (close road lighting only). There was a simple exhaust and standard tail lights plus attachement points over the rear bonnet for a spare tire.

There was also a foldable windshield with one of the two windows hinged up and maintained in place to place though a light machine gun, Type 11 or 96 operated by the co-driver. In some versions, a pintle mount was installed for a heavier 92 light machine gun. Thanks to its small sized and weight, the Kurogane could fit into the Kokusai Ku-8 airplane with glider Airborne troops. The Teishin gliding infantry regiment used some as add-on mobile machine gun posts and to carry supply.
  • 1935 prototypes: 1200cc 2-cyl. V, 2-door sedan, roadster, rectangular front grille, no bumper, body on chassis frame.
  • Type A: Produced 1937-1938, 1300cc roadster only, 3 seater with Oval grille and Bumper.
  • Type B: Produced 1939-1943, 1400cc, 4-seats Phaeton, Square grille.
  • 1939 prototype: 4-door 1939 Phaeton, extended wheelbase, square grille.
  • Type C: 1944, 1400cc, 2-seat pickup truck, limited prod.

The Type 95 Kurogane in action

The Kurogane was deployed in China from 1937 and was involved 1938 Mandchurian and central china push and in 1939, they were present furing the battle of Nomonhan in 1939. Later they were deployed with all IJA units during the Pacific War, for recce, supply and more and more as staff car for Army and Navy officers in the 4-seater phaeton. It saw all continental campaigns between China, Malaysia, Indochina, Burma, Java, the Philippines and up to the Indian border, more rarely in Pacific islands, but when it did, that was often the only vehicle around.

The chronic lack of vehicle pushed the Japanese to capture and reuse as many vehicle they could during their asian campaign. The kurogane were never enough to satisfy its need and the appelingly slow production represented a pinprick compared to Celebrities such s the Jeep or Kübelwagen.

The kurogane was not a bad vehicle per se, its off-road qualities were real, it was very agile, easy to maintain and repair, but it could be unstable, and was woefully underpowered. It was however quite unique as a vehicle, was nicknamed "Yonki" (the "all wheel drive") or "daruma" after the Buddhist symbol sported in its sides for good luck, or "Sakura" fr its front grille's five-pointed star ("cherry blossom") of the army. The "bug" made its way in popular culture cinema and video games, and is still recoignisable by history buffs today.

Type 95 Kurogane specifications

Dimensions3,600 x 1,520 x 1,680 (141.7 in x 59.8 in x 66.1 in)
Wheelbase2,000 mm (78.7 in)
TrackFront tread x rear tread 1250 mm
Total weight1,060(A)-1,100 kg(B) (2,425.1 lb)
Crew3 (Roadster) 4 (Phaeton)
Propulsion1.3 L/1.4 L AC OHV V2-cyl. engine
Top speed33 hp/3300 rpm
Range (maximal at cruise speed)Unknown, c200 km
Total production4700

Read More/Src

Japanese Motor Vehicles can be Operated on United States Fuels
militaryfactory.com
pacificwrecks.com
yuri pasholok walkaround - primeportal.net
motos-of-war.ru
360carmuseum.com
offroadaction.ca
classiccarcatalogue.com
mmj-car.com
Video
gigazine.net, Kurogane restoration
Japanese Army Weapons 1-13" Trial Type 98 Small Passenger Car (Rikuo Light 4 Ki), Okamoto Light 4 Ki, Daihatsu Light 4 Ki, Type 4 Small Car (Toyota AK-10)
jsae.or.jp
Okamoto Bicycle Company
jsae.or.jp Type 95 Kurogane 4WD Military Personnel Carrier
japanesenostalgiccar.com

Gallery


Type 95A in brown livery, usable in some areas.


Type 95A in brown livery, the Daruma symbol was often painted on the doors.


Type 95A in Khaki green livery


Type 95A with canvas roof mounted, Type 11 LMG


Type 95A, 2nd Rank Div. 2. Comp. Supply, China 1940


Type 95A, 1st Sensha Reintai XXV Army Jitra, Malaysia Dec.1941, Type 96 LMG


Kurogane Type A with pintle mounted Type 92MG.


IJA Type 95B Model 5 phaeton


Type 95C pickup















Type A Preserved in a museum


Kurigane side car, 1933







Video

see also

WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
British ww2 British WWI Vehicles
LGOC B-type troop Bus
Mack AC
Pierce-Arrow AA truck
BSA 14/18 hp-20/25 hp
BSA 13.9 h.p
Lanchester staff Car
Thornycroft J
Maudslay Lorry
AEC Y Type
Foster-Daimler Tractor
Motorc. Triumph H
Ford Model T Patrol Car
FWD Model B 3-ton Lorry
Leyland 3-ton truck
Vulcan truck
Vauxhall D-type staff car
Crossley 20/25 staff car
French ww2 French WWI Vehicles
Berliet CBA
Berliet Type M
Châtillon-Panhard Tractor
Panhard K11
Latil TAR Tractor
Panhard-Genty 24 HP
Renault EG
Renault AG1 Landaulet
Renault Truck 60CV
Renault FB Artillery Portee
Schneider CD Artillery Tractor
Soviet ww2 Russian WWI Vehicles
(list in research)
US ww2 US WWI Vehicles
Holt tractor
Liberty Trucks, assembled by:
  • Bethlehem
  • Brockway
  • Diamond T
  • Gardford
  • Gramm-Berstein
  • Indiana
  • Kelly-Springfield
  • Packard
  • Pierce-Arrow
  • Republic
  • Selden
  • SMTC
  • Sterling
  • USMTC
  • Velie
  • Dart
  • Lafrance
Cadillac trucks/staff cars
Ricker truck
Ford Model T Mil.
Spruce log truck
Dodge M1918 Light Repair truck
Dart BB, E, L, Liberty CC4, J Tractor
5-ton Artillery Tractor
Ford Model T Ambulance
Mack AC "Bulldog" Truck
Holt 15-ton Tractor
Jeffery Quad Lorry
FWD Model B‎
FWD SU-COE‎‎
Italy ww1 Italian WWI Vehicles
Lancia IZ
Fiat 15ter Ambulance
Fiat 15ter Lorry
Fiat 18BL Lorry
Hersent-Thiriont Flamethrower
(list in research)
Soviet ww2 Japanese WWI Vehicles
(list in research)
Belgian Dutch ww2 Belgian, Dutch and other WWI vehicles
Berna C2 Truck (Swiss)
(list in research)
German Empire ww1 German WWI Vehicles
A7V Überlandwagen
Beobachtungsanhänger
Büssing KZW1800 Artillery Tractor
Daimler Marienfelde Truck
Field Artillery Limbers
Große FeldKüche Hf.13
Mercedes 37/95 Staff Car
(list in research)
Soviet ww2 Austro-Hungarian Vehicles
Austro-Daimler Lorry
Austro-Daimler Artilleriezugwagen
B-Zug Artillery Tractor
Feldküche M.1915

Turkish vehicles Turkish WWI Vehicles
(list in research)

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
-AEC Armoured Command Vehicle (415)
-AEC Matador
-Albion CX22S
-Albion FT15N
-Albion WD.CX24
-Austin K2/Y Ambulance
-Austin K3
-Austin K4
-Austin K4 Dropside
-Austin K5
-Austin K6 GS
-Austin K6 Gantry
-Bedford MW
-Bedford OXA Armoured
-Bedford OXC Semi-trailer
-Bedford OXD GS
-Bedford OYC Tanker
-Bedford OYD GS
-Bedford QL series (QLD, QLR/QLC QLT TC)
-CMP FAT
-Commer Q2
-Crossley Q-Type
-Diamond T tank transporter
-Guy Quad-Ant FAT
-Guy Lizard ACV
-Humber FWD
-Karrier KT4
-Karrier K6
-Leyland Hippo Mk I/II
-Leyland Lynx
-Leyland Retriever
-Mack EXBX
-Morris 15cwt
-Morris CDSW
-Morris ML Ambulance
-Morris C8 GS/FAT
-Morris Commercial CD series
-Morris Commercial CS8
-Morris C9
-Morris GS Terrapin
-Morris PU
-Scammell Pioneer SV1S/SV2S
-Thornycroft Hathi (1924)
-Thornycroft Nubian
-Thornycroft Tartar
US ww2 Canadian Trucks
-Ford F8 CMP
-CMP C15/F15 (1940)
-CMP CGT/FGT FAT (1942)
-CMP C30/F30 LRGD (1942)
-CMP C30/F30 (1940)
-CMP C60/F60 LWB (1941)
-CMP C60/F60 SWB (1942)
-C-60X 6x6 CMP
-F-60H 6x4 CMP
-Ford F-GT CMP
-Chevy C-GT CMP
-C8A 1C1 HUP
-Chevrolet 3 ton truck
-Chevrolet WB 30cwt LRDG
-Chevrolet C8/C8A 4x2 CMP
French ww2 French Vehicles
-Berliet DGRA
-Berliet GDC
-Berliet GDM
-Berliet VDCA
-Berliet 30
-Bernard fuel carrier
-Citroën Kégresse P14 .
-Citroën Kégresse P17
-Citroën Kégresse P19
-Citroën Type 23
-Citroën 32U
-Citroën T45
-ELMAG
-Fiat France 38R
-Ford France
-Hotchkiss PKW Type 680
-Hotchkiss 686
-Hotchkiss 686 PNA
-Isobloc W843M medical bus
-Laffly S15R
-Laffly S15T
-Laffly V15T
-Laffly V15R
-Laffly W15T/R
-Laffly 20TL
-Laffly 25
-Laffly 45
-Latil TAR H2
-Latil M2Tl6
-Matford F917
-Panhard K113 Truck
-Panhard K125 Truck/Bus
-Peugeot 202
-Peugeot 402
-Peugeot DMA
-Peugeot DK
-Peugeot DK5
-Renault AHS
-Renault AHN
-Renault AHR
-Renault AGC
-Renault ADK
-Renault ADH
-Renault AHSs
-Saurer type 3CT
-Simca 5 staff car
-Simca 8 staff car
-Somua MCL
-Somua MCG
-Talbot staff car
-Unic TU1
-Unic P107
-Trippel SG6
-Willeme DU10
Soviet ww2 Soviet Trucks
-BZ-38
-GAZ AA M1927 M1932 M1941
-GAZ–MM
-GAZ AAA M1937/1940
-GAZ-60
-GAZ-65
-Ford Marmon HH6 Katiusha
-SU-1-12
-SU-4
-SU C-6
-SU-12
-Yag-6
-Yag-10
-Yag-10 SPG
-ZIS-5/V/BZ
-ZIS-6
-ZIS-12
-ZIS-22M HT
-ZIS-33 HT
-ZIS 41 HT
-ZIS 42M HT
-FN-Kégresse T3

Soviet staff cars
-GAZ A
-GAZ M1 "Emka"
-GAZ 11-73
-GAZ 61-73
-GAZ 67 Amphibious armoured cars
-PB-4
-PB-7
-BAD-2
Soviet ww2 Czech Trucks
-Praga N (1915)
-Praga TNSPE (1916) AC
-Praga MN, LN (1926)
-Praga RN (1933)
-Praga SND (SNDgs) (1937)
-Praga RND (1935)
-Praga T6 (1937) artillery tractor
-Praga RV (1934)
-Praga AV (1936)
-Tatra 26
-Tatra 57/57K (1932-1940)
-Tatra 72
-Tatra 82
-Tatra 92
-Tatra 81
-Tatra 111
US ww2 US Trucks
-Autocar U8144T 5/6-ton 4x4 truck
-Brockway/LaFrance 6-ton 6x6 truck, G512, 514, 547, 569
-Brockway 6-ton 6×6 truck
-Chevrolet m1931
-Chevrolet m1936
-Chevrolet G506 1.5 ton 4x4 truck
-Chevrolet G-7107 4-1/2 ton 4x4
-Chevrolet 3116 1-1/2 ton 4x2
-Chevrolet AFWX-354
-Corbitt 6-ton 6×6 truck
-Diamond T Model 980/981 12-ton 6x4 trucks (G159)
-Diamond T Model 968 4-ton 6x6 truck (G509)
-Diamond T Model 967
-Diamond T Model 970
-Diamond T Model 972
-Diamond M26 Dragon Wagon
-Diamond M19 Tank Transporter
-Diamond T Model 980
-Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 truck
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton truck
-Dodge WC-51/52 (3⁄4-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier)
-Dodge WC-53 (3⁄4-ton Carryall)
-Dodge WC-54/64 (3⁄4-ton Ambulance)
-Dodge WC-55 (3⁄4-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage)
-Dodge WC-56/57/58 (3⁄4-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance)
-Dodge WC-62/43 (G-507, 11⁄2-ton, 6x6 truck)
-Dodge M6 GMC
-Dodge T-234 "China/Burma" truck
-Ford B3000 S
-Ford V3000S
-Ford V3000A
-Ford BB
-Ford V8-51
-Ford m1931
-Ford V8 M1937
-Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) SU-COE 5-6 ton 4x4
-International B2
-International model 1937
-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4
-Studebaker US6x4 U-5
-Studebaker US6x4 U-7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-T1E1(M1) half-track
-T5 half-track
-T7 half-track
-T9 half-track
-Ward LaFrance
-White 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-White G-691 444T
-White 6-ton 6×6 truck G512, 514, 526, 547

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle
US ww2 Tractors. M1 Heavy Tractor:
  • Allis-Chalmers Model L
  • G-022 Caterpillar Model 60
  • G-89 Caterpillar RD7
  • G-98, G-107 Allis-Chalmers HD-10DW
  • G-101 International Harvester TD-18
  • G-126 Caterpillar D7
  • G-153 Caterpillar D8

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks


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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Half Tracks

-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
-Sd.Kfz.3 Maultier
-Sd.Kfz.4 Panzerwerfer
-Sd.Kfz.6
-Sd.Kfz.7
-Sd.Kfz.8
-Sd.Kfz.9
-Sd.Kfz.10
-Sd.Kfz.11
-Schwere Wehrmachtsschlepper
-Leichte Wehrmachtsschlepper
-Raupenschlepper Ost

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-Kfz.15 Horch 901
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-ОМ Autocarretta da Montagna
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-SPA CL39
-SPA ТМ40
-Fiat 618
Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Bianchi Miles
-Ceirano-50СМ
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-SPA-38R
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-FIAT-633NM
-FIAT-634N
-FIAT-666
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro and TE
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda TP32
-Breda TP 40
-Breda TP 41
-Breda 6x4 51
-90/53 su Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars
-Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M Ballila
-Fiat 508CM Coloniale
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War & Modern Vehicles

Section pending completion.
BAV-485 * MAZ-543 * GAZ 46 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * GAZ 51 * GAZ 63* ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-151 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-157/PR-11M * ZIL-6 * ZIL-6


* * * * Praga V3S * Tatra 813
Ford G398 * Borgward BE3000 * Henschel HS 115 * Hanomag AL 28 * Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Mercedes LG 315/46 * Magirus-Deutz 170 * Magirus-Deutz 232 * Magirus-Deutz Jupiter 6x6 * Magirus-Deutz A 6500 * MAN KAT-1 * SLT 50 Elefant TT * Liebherr 8x8 GLW * MAN TGM Mil 18 4x4 * Liebherr 4x4 FKL * MAN 630 L2 * Mercedes LA * Unimog 404 2.5 standard * DKW Munga (1956) * Mercedes G-class * Volkswagen Type 181 (1968) * Volkswagen Iltis (1978) * MAN LX Tactical Trucks * M3 Amphibious Rig
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8

Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK/MK * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL

IFA G5

Nissan 2.5 Truck * * Hitachi Type 73 artillery tractor (1974) * Toyota Type 73 * Isuzu HST * Nissan Patrol * Mitsubishi Type 73 * Toyota Land Cruiser *
Jiefang CA10 * Jiefang CA30
Beijing BJ212 * Beijing BJ2020 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * Wanshan W-2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | Berliet GBC 8 TK & Renault GBC 180 | Renault Kerax* | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scania TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | Arquus Trapper VT4 | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Modern Trucks

Section pending completion.

India:

Tatra Prithvi | Ashok-Leyland Agni II TEL

Italy:

Iveco ACTL

Romania:

AMT 25, AMT 950, DAC, Roman, Dacia Duster.

Indonesia:

Rantis P6 ATAV

Russia:

UAZ Esaul * Kamaz 6560 * Pantsir S1

France:

Renault TRM 10000 GP | Renault RM 700-100 TT | Renault TRM 2000 lorry | <Renault Kerax | Iveco PPT3 | PML VPCM | Scania CCP10 | Scanian TRA TOE NG | Renault ESRC | Renault ESRC AVIT | Renault CCPTA | Mercedes CCP3/5 | Renault Carapace | Renault CDLR | Renault PPDL | Renault CDLR CBH 385 | VLTT | Grizzly LUV | VOS-APP LUV | VOS-PAT LUV | Acmat VLRA | Panhard VPS LUV | Aquus AREG VLFS | Renault T4 VLTP NG | | French Mil. Quads | Renault Kangoo | French Bulldozers | Souvim Minesweeper | EFA Bridgelayer | Renault PFM BDL | SPRAT AVLB

Germany:

Mercedes 250GD Wolf | Mercedes Wolf SSA | Mercedes G300 Greenliner | VW T3/T4/T6 van | BWM G650 GS | BMW F850 GS | BMW R1150 RT | BMW R1200 RT | KTM 400LS-E BdW | LIV(SO) Serval | German quads | Faun LST50-3 Elefant | Faun STL56 Franziska | Faun SLT Mammut | RMT HX81 | SAANH 70T | Mercedes Unimog U3/4/5000 | Mercedes Zetros | MAN KAT1 | RMT Multi 2 | RMT WLS 6x6 | RMT UTF WLKS 8x8 | | MAN TGS 8x4 | MAN TGS 6x4 | MAN RMMV TGA | Mercedes Atego | Mercedes Axor | EWK M3 Amph.Rig | Liebherr FKL | Liebherr FKM | T.Faun FKS ATF 30-2 | T.Faun FKS ATF 70-4 | T.Faun FKS ATF 100-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 110-5 | T.Faun FKS ATF 120-5 Obelix | Steinbrock 2.5 Y4 | Herbst-Smag Orion V | Konecrane SMV 2216 TC3 | Ahlmann AS1600 | Liebherr 574 | MAN Cobra Radar | Liebherr LTM 1050

Netherlands:

Defenture Mammoth | to come | placeholder | MLC-70 WGMST

Turkey:

United Kingdom:

RWMIK land rover | Toyota Jankel Al-Thalab | Sky Sabre | Alvis Unipower | land Rover Wolf | Land Rover Defender BFA | Alvis Supacat ATMP | Marshall Gasket 3 | MAN SV (Mark I-III)

USA:

Interim Fast Attack Vehicle | M1161 Growler | Boeing Phantom Badger | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |