WW1 Trucks


All the belligerents engaged in the great war had trucks, tractors and cars, but not systematically armored vehicles, or tanks. Paris Taxis became pivotal at the Marne in 1914, but this was just a beginning. Mobility was everywhere, rear of the front or in the mud, with artillery tractors and standardization, for the first time hit US manufacturers big time, giving the world's first standard mass-built military truck, the Liberty Type B with more than 14,000 produced - still, a small dust compared to the millions of WW2.

Prewar truck industry

For a wartime truck industry you need at least a solid industrial basis prewar.
(to be contined...)

Truck Mobilization

Over 1,000 civilian lorries and over 300 buses were requisitioned at the outbreak of hostilities in Britain alone. Both the latter and the US believed in trucks rather than horses at the start of hostilities, unlike the French, German, Russian or Italians. The latter pressed their own industry to provide simplified models and ramp up their prewar production. Trucks registered in very sophisticated schedules for concentrating troops and equipment at key depots, and then despatching them to their designated positions, starting on on their frontiers.

The French army had 6,000 cars and less than 150 trucks dedicated to the Army in August 1914, and for four years, ramped up dramatically the industry, started to standardize types, and orders large numbers abroad, notably to the US. Trucks, but also artilery tractors, especially those of the Holt type that soon inundated the battlefield. In 1914, the British Ministry of War confiscated 850 trucks, but still Germany was slow to react, having full trust into its railways. It had a head way due to private subsidies for trucks buyers, in case of mobilization. There was already some standardization prewar as the government asked all manufacturers to place the pedals (accelerator, clutch, brake) the same way. This eased training and maintenance during WWI, even allowing simple soldiers to drive trucks when needed.

The truck usefulness, development of specialized vehicles (troops and supply transports, ambulances, sanitary, chemical, field kitchen, water tanks, fuel tanks, radio, AA...) was not lost on the belligerents and at the end of the war, the French army 15 times more vehicles than at the start, but it was still less than the British Ministry of War, which made the impossible to bringing to the front some 56,000 vehicles of all types. Specialized manufacturers found the Army was a major customer and the war itself really broke all records in terms of automotive industrial capabilities. Motorized army squadrons started to appear, like the Army Service Corps (A.S.C.) for the British Army, crewed by 60,500 soldiers alone. 325,000 in 1918 when the guns barked for the last time. Due to shortages they wore aviation uniforms. A remainder of the RNAS vehicles of Northern France.

This mass production, unprecedented, needed long-term investments, but provided many advantages on the battlefield, with much greater flexibility than rail, and better suited to resist shelling than horse. Off-road vehicles made their debut in this war. Parisian taxis became also famous under General Gallieni that forcibly mobilized all of them in 1915, to bring out a constant supply of soldiers on the Marne, completely surprising the Germans and turning the tide of the war, at the Marne river. At Verdun, the French also setup a formidable supply line on a single road called the "sacred way", mobilizing at some point 80% of French trucks.

Still, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and more so Turkey proved to be too weak economically to simultaneously develop war production and lorries. Factories were too small and lacked resources, compounded by the naval blocus, also there was still a way through Turkey, including for tires. German giant labs like Bayer developed synthetic tires for the first time, but they had little durability. 1

About 1,000 London double decker buses were also mobilized, allowing the Army to count on large capacity troop transports at the Somme alone. While manufacturers geared up for scale, massive amounts of trucks were imported from the US, in which Taylorization was adopted for years and worked wonders for just such demands.

The Railway question

Well integrated into their logistics, Germany had an edge on rail transportation planning (part of 'Schlieffen Plan') and almost won at the "battle of the frontiers" in August, but also at Tannenberg, where mobility played a vital role despite superior numbers on the Russian side. This was basically a refinement of the strategy used in 1870 already, which brought victory. However trains are not everything. For the last miles, trucks were used, replacing horse carriages when possible. Also, in occupied teritories, the Belgians and Dutch practice a scorched earth policy and blew up all railways when retreating. The same happened in northern France. In belgium alone, a month after the occupation only 15% of the railway network was operable. The entente was slow to bring up on the front heavy artilly, but when they did, they prioritized rebuilt railway lines and depots beyond the frontline.

This went on until 1918 with the very last naval bombardment made by British Monitor HMS Clive on Snaeskerke, 6 km south of Ostend on 28 September 1918, from 36,000 yards (longest hit by the Royal Navy) with a gigantic 18-in gun. By security, no railway was created closer than 7 miles (11 km) from the front. It was generally beyond the range of other railways guns and tracted heavy artillery. Both French and Germans were very good with light railways construction for military supply alone, using narrow gages, from regional large depots to the frontline, and along a serie of field depots. In France alone, 2,000 miles of these had been laid.

Horse transport, still

Horse transport was huge also. Starting with around 25,000 for the British alone, a large part of which used in cavalry brigades, later reassigned to transport units, 115,000 were mobilized. The French Army, mostly dependent of millions of them, in addition imporrted about 525,000 from Argentina and the U.S. Far more were mobilized by the other powers. Dedicated Vets treated some 2.5 millions horse and two millions were returned to the battlefield. Horse Hospitals were even created, with an everage capacity for 2,000 horses at a time. Horse carcasses even became so common on the no man's land that dummy carcasses were created for snipers. Mules became also important, especially on the Italian front, climbing with ease and carrying heavy loads.

But overall loses were crippling. Like trucks, horse transports came directly to the front lines via muddy roads, and were frequently bombarded. 484,000 horses were lost for the British Army alone, one for every two men casualties. 7,000 were killed at Verdun on a single day in 1916. Most were Germans, wiped ou by French Railway Naval Guns. The US in turned, broughts their horses, and had in 1918 1,325,000 American horses and mules in activity. The Cavalry counted 32,000 dedicated breds horse in 1918, and in between, much more had been converted to transport, although for conoisseurs, it was quite a waste of toroughbreds, but at that stage, working horses throughout Europe had been mobilized already to the full. 1 2 (to be contined...)

entente Entente ww1 Vehicles

LGOC B-type troop Bus
Mack AC
Pierce-Arrow AA truck
BSA 14/18 hp-20/25 hp
BSA 13.9 h.p
Lanchester staff Car
Thornycroft J
Maudslay Lorry
AEC Y Type
Foster-Daimler Tractor
Motorc. Triumph H
Ford Model T Patrol Car
FWD Model B 3-ton Lorry
Leyland 3-ton truck
Vulcan truck
Vauxhall D-type staff car
Crossley 20/25 staff car
(list in research)

Berliet CBA
Berliet Type M
Châtillon-Panhard Tractor
Panhard K11
Latil TAR Tractor
Panhard-Genty 24 HP
Renault EG
Renault AG1 Landaulet
Renault Truck 60CV
Renault FB Artillery Portee
Schneider CD Artillery Tractor
(list in research)

(list in research)

Holt tractor
    Liberty Trucks, assembled by:
  • Bethlehem
  • Brockway
  • Diamond T
  • Gardford
  • Gramm-Berstein
  • Indiana
  • Kelly-Springfield
  • Packard
  • Pierce-Arrow
  • Republic
  • Selden
  • SMTC
  • Sterling
  • Velie
  • Dart
  • Lafrance
Cadillac trucks/staff cars
Ricker truck
Ford Model T Mil.
Spruce log truck
Dodge M1918 Light Repair truck
Dart BB, E, L, Liberty CC4, J Tractor
5-ton Artillery Tractor
Ford Model T Ambulance
Mack AC "Bulldog" Truck
Holt 15-ton Tractor
Jeffery Quad Lorry
FWD Model B‎
(list in research)

Lancia IZ
Fiat 15ter Ambulance
Fiat 15ter Lorry
Fiat 18BL Lorry
Hersent-Thiriont Flamethrower
(list in research)

(list in research)

Berna C2 Truck (Swiss)
(list in research)

ww1 central empire trucks Central Empires Trucks

A7V Überlandwagen
Büssing KZW1800 Artillery Tractor
Daimler Marienfelde Truck
Field Artillery Limbers
Große FeldKüche Hf.13
Mercedes 37/95 Staff Car
(list in research)

Austro-Daimler Lorry
Austro-Daimler Artilleriezugwagen
B-Zug Artillery Tractor
Feldküche M.1915
(list in research)

(list in research)


German modified Westmorland-Cumberland Yeomanry car
1908 Isotta-Fraschini voiturette

These images are reproduced strictly for non-commercial research and private study purposes as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, as amended and revised

Sources/Read More

Note: The subject is pretty scarce compared to WW2, but here is the list of books and online resources i could find:



Nash Quad trials
Ken Kafka's Restored 1918 Nash Quad
Trucks of WWI, Liberty B and Dodge M1918
Out of the ether, trucks in palestine, WWI
The GREAT DORSET STEAM FAIR WW1 Homecoming convoy, entering Blandford

Sites & online discussions:

softskin on landships.info
Berna C2 on landships.info
Armed Bikes
Russian armored cars on wio.ru
motors on www.greatwarforum.org
The Vauxhall D-Type staff car on westernfrontassociation.com
Book: WWI military trucks
Tin Lizzie on militarytrader.com
ww1 lorries pinterest

Open source stuff and photos:

French WWI trucks
British AA vehicles
WWI trucks CC gallery
About the US Motor Transport Corps
Liberty Trucks
Foster Daimler Tractor
London Buses at war
WWI Mil. British Vehicles

Model kits:

Standard B "Liberty" with WWI US Drivers
WWI Army Truck FWD Model B PE detail set

WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
UK: LGOC B-type troop Bus, Mack AC, Pierce-Arrow, BSA 14/18 hp-20/25 hp, BSA 13.9 h.p, Lanchester staff Car, Thornycroft J, Maudslay Lorry, AEC Y Type, Foster-Daimler Tractor, Motorc. Triumph H
US: Holt tractor, Liberty Truck (Bethlehem, Brockway, Diamond T, Gardford, Gramm-Berstein, Indiana, Kelly-Springfield, Packard, Pierce-Arrow, Republic, Selden, SMTC, Sterling, USMTC, Velie), Dart, Lafrance, Cadillac, Ricker, Spruce log truck, Dodge M1918 Light Repair truck

FR: Berliet CBA, Berliet Type M, Châtillon-Panhard, Panhard K11, Latil TAR, Panhard-Genty 24 HP, Renault EG
(More to come)

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
-AEC Armoured Command Vehicle (415)
-AEC Matador
-Albion CX22S
-Albion FT15N
-Albion WD.CX24
-Austin K2/Y Ambulance
-Austin K3
-Austin K4
-Austin K4 Dropside
-Austin K5
-Austin K6 GS
-Austin K6 Gantry
-Bedford MW
-Bedford OXA Armoured
-Bedford OXC Semi-trailer
-Bedford OXD GS
-Bedford OYC Tanker
-Bedford OYD GS
-Bedford QL series (QLD, QLR/QLC QLT TC)
-CMP Truck
-Commer Q2
-Crossley Q-Type
-Diamond T tank transporter
-Guy Quad-Ant FAT
-Guy Lizard ACV
-Humber FWD
-Karrier KT4
-Karrier K6
-Leyland Hippo Mk I/II
-Leyland Lynx
-Leyland Retriever
-Mack EXBX
-Morris 15cwt
-Morris CDSW
-Morris ML Ambulance
-Morris C8 GS/FAT
-Morris Commercial CD series
-Morris Commercial CS8
-Morris C9
-Morris GS Terrapin
-Morris PU
-Scammell Pioneer SV1S/SV2S
-Thornycroft Hathi (1924)
-Thornycroft Nubian
-Thornycroft Tartar
French ww2 French Vehicles
-Berliet DGRA
-Berliet GDC
-Berliet GDM
-Berliet VDCA
-Berliet 30
-Bernard fuel carrier
-Citroën Kégresse P14 .
-Citroën Kégresse P17
-Citroën Kégresse P19
-Citroën Type 23
-Citroën 32U
-Citroën T45
-Fiat France 38R
-Ford France
-Hotchkiss PKW Type 680
-Hotchkiss 686
-Hotchkiss 686 PNA
-Isobloc W843M medical bus
-Laffly S15R
-Laffly S15T
-Laffly V15T
-Laffly V15R
-Laffly W15T/R
-Laffly 20TL
-Laffly 25
-Laffly 45
-Latil TAR H2
-Latil M2Tl6
-Matford F917
-Panhard K113 Truck
-Panhard K125 Truck/Bus
-Peugeot 202
-Peugeot 402
-Peugeot DMA
-Peugeot DK
-Peugeot DK5
-Renault AHS
-Renault AHN
-Renault AHR
-Renault AGC
-Renault ADK
-Renault ADH
-Renault AHSs
-Saurer type 3CT
-Simca 5 staff car
-Simca 8 staff car
-Somua MCL
-Somua MCG
-Talbot staff car
-Unic TU1
-Unic P107
-Trippel SG6
-Willeme DU10
Soviet ww2 Soviet Trucks
-GAZ AA M1927 M1932 M1941
-GAZ AAA M1937
-GAZ AAA M1940
-Ford Marmon HH6 Katiusha
-SU C-6
-Yag-10 SPG
-ZIS-33 HT
-ZIS 41 HT
-FN-Kégresse T3

Soviet staff cars
-GAZ M1 "Emka"
-GAZ 11-73
-GAZ 61-73
-GAZ 67 Amphibious armoured cars
US ww2 US Trucks
-Ford B3000 S
-Ford V3000S
-Ford V3000A,
-Ford BB
-Ford V8-51
-Ford m1931
-Ford V8 M1937
-T1E1(M1) half-track
-T5 half-track
-T7 half-track
-T9 half-track
-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
-International B2
-International model 1937
-Chevrolet m1931
-Chevrolet m1936
-Chevrolet G506 1.5 ton 4x4 truck
-Chevrolet G-7107 4-1/2 ton 4x4
-Chevrolet 3116 1-1/2 ton 4x2
-Studebaker US6x4 U7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6x6 U-5 6x4
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton truck
-Dodge WC-51/52 (3⁄4-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier)
-Dodge WC-53 (3⁄4-ton Carryall)
-Dodge WC-54/64 (3⁄4-ton Ambulance)
-Dodge WC-55 (3⁄4-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage)
-Dodge WC-56/57/58 (3⁄4-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance)
-Dodge WC-62/43 (G-507, 11⁄2-ton, 6x6 truck)
-Dodge M6 GMC
-GMC CCKW Cargo Truck
-GMC CCKW 353 2-1/2 Ton Truck
-GMC 1939 ACKWX 353 3 ton 6x6 truck
-GMC AFWX-353 3 ton 6x4 truck
-GMC DUKW 353 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Diamond T Model 980/981 12-ton 6x4 trucks (G159)
-Diamond T Model 968 4-ton 6x6 truck (G509)
-Diamond T Model 967
-Diamond T Model 970
-Diamond T Model 972
-Diamond M26 Dragon Wagon
-Diamond M19 Tank Transporter
-Diamond T Model 980
-Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 truck
-Autocar U8144T 5/6-ton 4x4 truck
-Brockway/LaFrance 6-ton 6x6 truck, G512, 514, 547, 569
-White/Corbitt 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-Ward LaFrance
-Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) SU-COE 5-6 ton 4x4
-White Motor Company
-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks

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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Opel Maultier
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-ОМ-32 Autocarretta da Montagna
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-Fiat 618

Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Breda Dovunque-41
-Bianchi Miles
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarreta Mod.35
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda 51
-Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 - half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 - wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars -Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M/CM Ballila
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
-Amphibious Truck "Su-Ki"

Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War

Section pending completion.
MAZ-543 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-6

Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Unimog 404 2.5 standard
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8
Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK * Bedford KM * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL
Nissan 2.5 Truck
Wanshan W-2600 * Beijing BJ212 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * WS2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
ACMAT VRLA * ACMAT VT4 * ACMAT ALTV * Hotchkiss M201/203 * Delahaye VLR * Peugeot P4 * Berliet GBC 8 KT * Berliet TBU * Berliet TF * Renault GBC 180 * Renault G290 * Renault CBH 385 * Renault Sherpa 5 * CAESAR SPG (Renault Sherpa 10) * MFRD * Renault Kerax * Renault 420 fuel truck * SUMB MH600BS * Renault SAMP-T * TRM-10000 * TRM-2000 * TRM-4000 * TRM-700-100