Ford Marmon Herrington Artillery Tractor/T9

USACanadaUSA/Canada (1936-40) - Half Track Tractor - circa 100 built

The first American Half Track

Eearly developments (1931-35)

In the wake of motorization in the early 1930s, the US Ordnance started to be interested in the French half-track designs, notably those showcased in the mediatic "yellow cruise". Citroen-Kégress were purchased and evaluated by the US Ordnance department, testing their use on all terrains and were impressed by its capabilities. Indeed at that time, the Cavalry arm ahd wheeled armored scout cars were not favoured in the mud ad snow because of their high ground pressure.



The US Technical services of the United States Army tested stock P17 and James Cunningham Son & Co was paid to purchase the Kégresse licence and built the Half Track Car T1 as soon as 1932. Other manufacturers were granted the right to creta additional prototypes, notably White, which would later decline from it the famous WW2 M2/M3. After requested changes, a batch of T1E1 were produced at the Rock Island Arsenal. They were standardized as the Half-Track Car M1. The T1E2 and T1E3 were test-beds for a new tracked undercarriage and ten were manufactured and delivered for field tests until 1939, also reclassed under the M1 nomenclature.

Meawnhile in 1933 already, GMC developed a 2.5 tonne semi-tracked truck using a Cunningham rear axle. This model, developed under request of the US Army, received the denomination Half-Track Truck T1. But it led to nowhere and after field tests, it was abandoned. Ford built the Half-Track Truck T2, and Linn a the Half-Track Truck T3, a really larger vehicle able to crryi a light tank. Both were tested and nothing happened afterwards. Ultimately GMC camed back with the much improved T5, closer to the US Army specifications: 24 T5 were manufactured ans integrated in the US Army for unit tests.

In 1935, a modified T5E1 was capable of towing the 155mm M1 howitzer. Improved, it led to the a T5E2, and in the US Army ot became clear the half-track would be useful as an artillery tractor, in order to follow the new armored divisions. The T5 had the same flexible reinforced rubber track that will characterize future production with the "Timken" wheeltrain. Linn afterwards submitted the Half-Track T6, based on its T3 but it was too slow, and received a new engine and modification to produce the T8. It was tested but rejected by the Army as well.

The half-Track T9, blueprint for the M2/M3 (1936-39)

Half Track T7 White entered the fray at the end of 1935 to submit to the army the medium artillery tractor Half-Track T7. It was tested but had no follow-ups. In 1936 at last, the Half-Track T9 appeared, this time from Marmon-Herrington. It was far superor technically to the others as offering a transfer case on the front axle. There was a transmission between the front axle and rear axle, obtaining a sort of 4x4 kinetic. It receives a front bumper crossing roller, an idea later passed onto M2/M3 half-tracks. The two prototypes were severely tested, and approved later by the ordnance as "Half-Track Truck M2". Two sub-variants were built, the T9E1 and T9E2. Both were tested, but the T9 was soon fitted with a well crafted wheeltrain.

In 1938, the army now looked to carry support troops with these vehicles, the Half-Track Personnel Carrier T7 was created, made with a front section of a White M2A1 scout-car and the T9 tracked assembly. Tested by the army, this was total success, and soon White was put in charge of the M2 and M3 half-track cars, one artillery tractor, and one armored personal carrier. Soon history would catch up and made the M2/M3 the iconic vehicles of WW2 we know. During WW2, Mack submitted an even larger half-track, the T19.

The T9 had T21 rubber block tracks, 25,4 cm in width, and with a 12,7 cm pitch (5 in). However the T9E1 used a T20E2 rubber block track 20,3 cm wide (8 in), but also with a 12,7 cm pitch (5 in). Empty weight of both the T9 was 3.200Kg, and 3.130Kg for the T9E1 and its cargo load was 1.250 Kg. Top peeds was 40 Km/h to 56 Km/h for the second, and two production tests models were built of each vehicle as contracted, with changed asked by the commission: Front wheel drive capable of operating in reverse, two hand brakes on sprocket shafts as steering aid, battery relocated to the upper right on the dash, new rear military body with six seats, and for the suspension, 25,4 cm (10 in) wide T24E1 rubber band tracks. The T9 was standardized as the M2 and had a small production, while the the T9E1 after modificaton on the bogie wheel (special pneumatic tires) became the T9E2. Tests were performed at Aberdeen with the E2 but showed this was unsatisfactory. T9 Tests proved however it was possible of synchronizing the front wheel and track drives, and this designed evolved into the T10, a proposal (never buuilt) of a light half-track for wire laying.

Enters the Ford Marmon Herrington

In 1935 already the Half-Track Truck T8 was made by Ford, with a patented Trackson tracks system, made only for trials. It will led to the Half-Track Truck T9 Ford Marmon-Herrington. A version of this model was developed with drive sprocket wheels and idle wheels (tensioner) aft, equipped with teeth. after further modification this model will be accepted by the US Army as Half-Track Truck M2.

Design

T9
T9 half track car

Ford Canada T9
Ford Canada Marmon-Herrington T9 in the field

fords-mh-36-canada
A platoon of Canadian Marmon-Herrington half tracks

Marmon-Herrington indeed found that there was a growing market for cheaper all-wheel drive vehicles and allied with Ford Motor Co. Converting large numbers of commercial Ford truck chassis with its own all-wheel drive conversion kits. These Ford/Marmon-Herrington were purchased by the US and Canadian military, finding quite a success. Marmon-Herrington's expertise was called to help as the Canadian automotive industry prepared for war production in September 1939: Ford Motor Canada was tasked to develop a 4x4 truck for the Canadian army, and having little experience in the field, they called Marmon-Herrington in Indianapolis. They already supplied conversion kits for Ford 4x2 trucks aimed at commercial use.

The Ford V8 truck of 1936 was fitted with a pressed steel cab and had a one and a half ton capacity bed. Its Ford V8 engine was rated for 80 horsepower, at 3800 rpm, but its standard transmission was completely modified and connected to a Marmon-Herrington auxiliary transmission. The latter was designed with an over-running clutch mated to the front wheels, providing eight forward and two reverse speeds. The first tests performed shown the front wheels could not be driven in reverse. This was modified for serial vehicles. The wheeltrain had volute spring bogie identical the T9, with four 30,4 cm diameter steel wheels per side. A system retained over the larger wheels of the T9E1, fitted with only two 50,8 mm diameter wheels per side, and in both cases in pressed steel with solid rubber tires on serial version. The Ford Marmon-Herrington half track 1936 produced in 1939 was the first military vehicle to be designed in Canada. Purchased as an artillery tractor, it saw service with the Royal Canadian Artillery, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry and the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada until replaced by the standard White Half Tracks M5 in 1942-45.

Read More

R.P. Hunnicutt, Half-Track: A History of American Semi-Tracked Vehicles, Presidio Press
maquetland.com/article-538-semi-chenillas-americains-1a-partie
panzerserra.blogspot.com/2016/06/ford-marmon-herrington-half-track-1936.html
http://www.coachbuilt.com/bui/m/marmon_herrington/marmon_herrington.htm


Canadian Ford Marmon-Herrington artillery tractor
T-9-half-track
T-9. The experimental T9E1 differed by having large 4 large metal wheels in the Timken suspension



T1 prototype (1932)

T2 prototype (1933)

GMC-Cunningham T1 (1934)
T9
M1 half track car (Standardized T1E1)

Linn T6 (1935)

T17 half track (1938). Suceeded by the Half-Track Truck T10, paper project of a cable layer vehicle for the Signal Corps, and the Half-Track T16 anufactured by Diamond as an artillery Tractor for the standard 105 mm howitzer. The last developed was White's Half-Track T17, which had a roof hatch (1939).
M2 Half Track
Standardized Ford Marmon Herrington M2 Half Track Car (ONI)

T14
Final White T14 Half Track Car prototype


Organization of a motorized rifle company (Steven Zaloga, Osprey)

WW1 Vehicles

British ww2 WWI trucks
FR: Berliet CBA, Berliet Type M, Châtillon-Panhard, Latil TAR, Panhard-Genty 24 HP, Renault EG

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

British ww2 British Vehicles
-AEC Armoured Command Vehicle (415)
-AEC Matador
-Albion CX22S
-Albion FT15N
-Albion WD.CX24
-Austin K2/Y Ambulance
-Austin K3
-Austin K4
-Austin K4 Dropside
-Austin K5
-Austin K6 GS
-Austin K6 Gantry
-Bedford MW
-Bedford OXA Armoured
-Bedford OXC Semi-trailer
-Bedford OXD GS
-Bedford OYC Tanker
-Bedford OYD GS
-Bedford QL series (QLD, QLR/QLC QLT TC)
-CMP FAT
-CMP Truck
-Commer Q2
-Crossley Q-Type
-Diamond T tank transporter
-Guy Quad-Ant FAT
-Guy Lizard ACV
-Humber FWD
-Karrier KT4
-Karrier K6
-Leyland Hippo Mk I/II
-Leyland Lynx
-Leyland Retriever
-Mack EXBX
-Morris 15cwt
-Morris CDSW
-Morris ML Ambulance
-Morris C8 GS/FAT
-Morris Commercial CD series
-Morris Commercial CS8
-Morris C9
-Morris GS Terrapin
-Morris PU
-Scammell Pioneer SV1S/SV2S
-Thornycroft Hathi (1924)
-Thornycroft Nubian
-Thornycroft Tartar
French ww2 French Vehicles
-Berliet DGRA
-Berliet GDC
-Berliet GDM
-Berliet VDCA
-Berliet 30
-Bernard fuel carrier
-Citroën Kégresse P14 .
-Citroën Kégresse P17
-Citroën Kégresse P19
-Citroën Type 23
-Citroën 32U
-Citroën T45
-ELMAG
-Fiat France 38R
-Ford France
-Hotchkiss PKW Type 680
-Hotchkiss 686
-Hotchkiss 686 PNA
-Isobloc W843M medical bus
-Laffly S15R
-Laffly S15T
-Laffly V15T
-Laffly V15R
-Laffly W15T/R
-Laffly 20TL
-Latil TAR H2
-Latil M2Tl6
-Matford F917
-Panhard K113
-Panhard K113
-Peugeot 202
-Peugeot 402
-Peugeot DMA
-Peugeot DK
-Peugeot DK5
-Renault AHS
-Renault AHN
-Renault AHR
-Renault AGC
-Renault ADK
-Renault ADH
-Renault AHSs
-Saurer type 3CT
-Simca 5 staff car
-Simca 8 staff car
-Somua MCL
-Somua MCG
-Talbot staff car
-Unic TU1
-Unic P107
-Trippel SG6
-Willeme DU10
Soviet ww2 Soviet Trucks
-BZ-38
-GAZ AA M1927 M1932 M1941
-GAZ–MM
-GAZ AAA M1937
-GAZ AAA M1940
-GAZ-60
-GAZ-65
-Ford Marmon HH6 Katiusha
-SU-1-12
-SU-4
-SU C-6
-SU-12
-Yag-6
-Yag-10
-Yag-10 SPG
-ZIS-5/V/BZ
-ZIS-6
-ZIS-12
-ZIS-22M HT
-ZIS-33 HT
-ZIS 41 HT
-ZIS 42M HT
-FN-Kégresse T3

Soviet staff cars
-GAZ A
-GAZ M1 "Emka"
-GAZ 11-73
-GAZ 61-73
-GAZ 67 Amphibious armoured cars
-PB-4
-PB-7
-BAD-2
US ww2 US Trucks
-Ford B3000 S
-Ford V3000S
-Ford V3000A,
-Ford BB
-Ford V8-51
-Ford m1931
-Ford V8 M1937
-T1E1(M1) half-track
-T5 half-track
-T7 half-track
-T9 half-track
-G8T 2-1/2 ton 4x2 Truck
-International B2
-International model 1937
-Chevrolet m1931
-Chevrolet m1936
-Chevrolet G-506 ​1 1⁄2-ton 4x4
-Chevrolet G-7107 4-1/2 ton 4x4
-Chevrolet 3116 1-1/2 ton 4x2
-Studebaker US6x4 U7
-Studebaker US6x4 U-6
-Studebaker US6x6 U-5 6x4
-Studebaker US6 U4 bz35S 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Ambulance
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Carry-all
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Closed Cab
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Open Cab
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton (Radio) Panel Van
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Telephone Service (K50)
-Dodge 1⁄2-ton Truck, Emergency Repair
-Dodge WC-51/52 (3⁄4-ton Trucks, Weapons Carrier)
-Dodge WC-53 (3⁄4-ton Carryall)
-Dodge WC-54/64 (3⁄4-ton Ambulance)
-Dodge WC-55 (3⁄4-ton Truck, M6 Gun Motor Carriage)
-Dodge WC-56/57/58 (3⁄4-ton (Radio) Command Reconnaissance)
-Dodge WC-62/43 (G-507, 11⁄2-ton, 6x6 truck)
-Dodge M6 GMC
-GMC CCKW Cargo Truck
-GMC CCKW 353 2-1/2 Ton Truck
-GMC SWB CCKW-352
-GMC 1939 ACKWX 353 3 ton 6x6 truck
-GMC AFWX-353 3 ton 6x4 truck
-GMC DUKW 353 2-1/2 ton 6x6 truck
-GMC C.O.E. AFKWX
-Diamond T Model 980/981 12-ton 6x4 trucks (G159)
-Diamond T Model 968 4-ton 6x6 truck (G509)
-Diamond T Model 967
-Diamond T Model 970
-Diamond T Model 972
-Diamond M26 Dragon Wagon
-Diamond M19 Tank Transporter
-Diamond T Model 980
-Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 truck
-Autocar U8144T 5/6-ton 4x4 truck
-Brockway/LaFrance 6-ton 6x6 truck, G512, 514, 547, 569
-White/Corbitt 6 ton 6x6 Prime Mover
-Brockway
-Corbitt
-Ward LaFrance
-Four Wheel Drive Auto Company (FWD) SU-COE 5-6 ton 4x4
-White Motor Company
-Inl KR-11 5 ton 4x2 dump truck
-Inl M5-6 318 2-1/2 ton 6x6 swb
-Mack NR15 10-ton 6x4
-Reo 28 XS 10-ton 6x4

US ww2 Small truck/car & Misc.
Bantam Reconnaissance Car
Ford GTB
6x6 Willys 'MT-TUG' ("Super-Jeep")
-Willys MB light truck
-Ford GPA ("Seep")
Buick Century Series 60
1941 Plymouth P11 Staff Car
Ford Fordor 1942 Staff Car
Harley-Davidson WLA motorcycle

Axis ww2 Axis Trucks


Purchase this pagemarker and support the site !

Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

German ww2 German Military trucks
-Opel Blitz
-Opel Maultier
-Mercedes-Benz L3000
-Magirus A3000
-Krupp Protze Kfz.19
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.68
-Krupp Protze Kfz.69
-Krupp Protze Kfz.70
-Krupp Protze Kfz.81
-Krupp Protze Kfz.21
-Krupp Protze Kfz.83
-Borgward B 3000
-Skoda Rad Schlepper
-Ost RSO Porsche 175
-Steyr Type 2000A
-Einheits Lkw Kfz.62
-Krupp LKW L3
-Bussing-Nag 4500
-Opel Blitz Omnibus
-Bussing-Nag L
-Mercedes-Benz L1500
-Beute Studebaker
-Krupp L3H
-Hanomag SS-100
-Beute Ford B3000 S, V3000S, V3000A
-Beute Ford model BB
-Beute Ford model V8-51
-Beute Tatra 111

German ww2 German Staff Cars

-Horch 81
-Horch 108
-VW 182 Kübelwagen
-VW Schwimmwagen
-Sd.Kfz.2 Kettenkrad
italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
L. Trucks (Autocarro Leggere)
-Breda-32
-Breda-40
-Breda-41
-ОМ-32 Autocarretta da Montagna
-ОМ-36DM
-Camioneta SPA TL.37
-Camioneta AS.43
-SPA CL39
-SPA ТМ40
-Fiat 618

Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
-Alfa Romeo 800RE
-Breda Dovunque-41
-Bianchi Miles
-Ceirano-50СМ
-FIAT-626 NM
-Isotta Fraschini D65
-Isotta Fraschini D80
-SPA Dovunque-35
-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-SPA-38R
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-FIAT-633NM
-FIAT-634N
-FIAT-666
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarreta Mod.35
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda 51
-Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 - half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 - wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars -Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M/CM Ballila
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
-Amphibious Truck "Su-Ki"

Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War