5P85 TEL (S-300 PMU)

Soviet Union
SAM Telescopic Erector Launcher Truck (1978) - circa 650 built

The S-300 SAM carrier

The 5P85 is a family of missile launch vehicles, based on the MAZ-543 8x8 standard heavy truck of the Soviet Union. The 5P85 is the global name for the weapopns system associated with the S-300 long-range missile, as a mobile air defense system. It was developed in the Soviet Union by the late the 1970s. This Transporter, Erector and Launcher (TEL) vehicle had its first version 5P85ME introduced in 1978, followed by others, and largely sold abroad to about 19 operators, and all but two of them still had them in their inventory. Russia today alone had 352 vehicles active in the 2000s. They took part in many operations and wars. During the invasion of Ukraine in 2022, two were lost as of today.

About the S-300 SAM family



The S-300 (Initial NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of long range surface-to-air missile systems developed in Soviet Union by the 1970s, produced by NPO Almaz based on the initial S-300P system. The project-managing developer, Almaz-Antey developed the whole weapons system, but the missile themseves were developed by MKB "Fakel" and NPO Novator design bureaus (previous "OKB-2" and "OKB-8").

The S-300 was to be deployed top counter high altitude bomber air raids, shoot down spoy planes and and intercept cruise missiles. In time, more precise versions will be devoted to ballistic missiles interception. The S-300 system development started in 1979 for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities and military bases as well as airspace control, fully automated but with manual observation and operation as a backup.

It can be remotelly operated from fixed positions from a central command post up to 40 km away and the associated radars up to 80 km apart provides target designation for the central command post. The command post then compares data received from the targeting radars while filtering false targets. The system was designed for both active and passive target detection modes. It was also further developed into a naval version by MNIIRE Altair (Marine Scientific Research Institute of radioelectronics) as the S-300F or NATO SA-N-6 "Grumble".

As of today this system is regarded as one of the world's most potent missile system fielded, used in Asia, Eastern Europe and even operated by NATO member Bulgaria and Greece. It was superseded well after the fall of the Soviet Union by the S-400 (NATO SA-21 Growler) from 28 April 2007.

S300P - SA-10 Grumble (1978)

The initial missile system, called S-300PT (NATO SA-10A) is the original version operational in 1978, and by 1987, over 80 were active mainly around Moscow. Eacg unit consists of:
  • 36D6 (NATO TIN SHIELD) urveillance radar
  • 30N6 (FLAP LID) fire control system
  • 5P85-1 launch vehicle
The 5P85-1 vehicle, a semi-trailer truck provides support for four missiles, deployed as a TEL, vertically at the rear of the vehicle. Organically each battery usually comprises three 5P85-1 trucks and a single 76N6 (CLAM SHELL) low altitude detection radar also carried by the same MAZ-543 platform.

The S-300PT uses a passive electronically scanned array radar to engage multiple targets, with the same single fire-control system. Deplyment is done once the truck is stopped in about one hour dfoe the full set up and fire. To avoid scorching the rear of the TEL, launches are spaced by several minutes. It is compensated by the simultaneous fire of three trucks. The system was originally intended to use the Track Via Missile (TVM) guidance system but it's inability to track targets below 500 m had it postponed. To improve this, a new command-guidance system was added for the initial flight guidance, as low as 25 m altitude for low-flying strike aircraft.

Improvements to the S-300P resulted in many variants, including simplified ones for the export markets. -The S-300PT-1 (SA-10B)
-S-300PT-1A (SA-10C).
Both had the new 5V55KD missile, cold launch method and 30 minutes readiness, plus trajectory optimizations to reach 75 km.

S-300PS/S-300PM (NATO SA-10D/E Grumble) 1985

Next came the introduced in 1985. It was developed to carry a nuclear warhead and a more modern TEL and mobile radar plus command-post vehicles based on the MAZ-7910 8×8 truck (1980) instead of the MA-543A introduced in 1967. This model featured the new 5V55R missiles reaching 90 km (56 mi) and terminal semi-active radar homing guidance mode (SARH), associated radar system 30N6. The towed TEL is designated 5P85T, the Mobile TELs are the 5P85S and 5P85D. The second is a "slave" TEL controlled by a 5P85S identifiable thanks to the taller equipment container behind the cabin. On the "slave" it is not enclosed and used for cable or spare tyre storage.

S-300PMU (NATO SA-10F Grumble) 1992

The next modernization was introduced in 1992, but for the export market and still with the upgraded 5V55U missile with intermediate SARH terminal guidance method, smaller warhead but roughly the same range and altitude as the new 48N6 missile, of 150 km or 93 miles. The associated radars are the 64N6 (BIG BIRD) and illumination/guidance radar GRAU index 30N6-1.

All in all, S-300P systems (all combined) reached circa 3,000 launchers; 28,000 missiles with their individual canisters by 2012. This does not meant 3,000 TELs as many are also towed or fixed.

S-300PMU-1/2 (NATO SA-20A/B Grumble) 1993

The S-300PMU-1 (SA-20A Gargoyle) arrived in 1993 with the larger 48N6 missile with the same performances as the S300PM, smaller warhead than the naval version at 143 kg (315 lb) and coupled with the 30N6E (NATO TOMB STONE) radar. In addition to the 5V55R and 48N6E missiles, the S-300PMU-1 used the 9M96E1 and 9M96E2, smaller missiles at 330-420 kg (730 and 930 lb) with small 24 kg (53 lb) warhead and 1–40 km (0.62–25 mi) or 1–120 km (0.62–75 mi) range. They used aerodynamic fins and gas-dynamic system for excellent Pk still at 0.7 against a tactical ballistic missile.

It was coupled with the 83M6E command and control system including the 64N6E (BIG BIRD) surveillance/detection radar and 30N6E(1) control/illumination and guidance radar, plus a 76N6 low altitude detection radar and 96L6E all altitude detection radars, both tracked. The 83M6E CiC can control up to 12 TELs, of the 5P85SE/5P85TE type. Each unit included a 40V6M tow vehicle for support and lifting the fixed antenna post. The S-300PMU-2 (SA-20B) was introduced in 1997, but presented in 1996 with a 195 km (121 mi) range and 48N6E2 missile also able to shoot down medium range ballistic missiles. The CiC is the 83M6E2 with the 54K6E2 CP vehicle, 64N6E2 surveillance/detection radar, 30N6E2 FC/IG radar. Same for control, 12 with 5P85SE2 TEL and/or 5P85TE2 trailer launcher. Occosionally coupled with the 96L6E all altitude + 76N6 low altitude detection radars, both tracked.

From missilery.info/: "The universal mobile multi-channel anti-aircraft missile system C-300PMU-2 "Favorit" is designed to defend the most important assets, its armed forces, from massive strikes of modern and advanced aircraft and strategic cruise missiles, tactical and operational-tactical ballistic missiles or any other air attack with varying the range and speeds and in any conditions, including when exposed to intense active and passive interference.

The S-300PMU-2 Favorit system is a further development of the S-300PMU-1 with increased compabt capabilities with the new 48N6E2 missile with increased efficiency for hitting ballistic targets at 40 km, ensuring the detonation of the target’s warhead with greater zone of destruction and in a 200 km range, including in pursuit and a radar and CiC system enabling to shoot and track and the same time tup to 12 simultanoeus targets. The detection characteristics of the system ere improved in combat operations by using the new target designation radar 96L6E, using the 48N6E ZRS S-300PMU-1 missiles along with the 48N6E2 missile, and even NATO standards compatibility. Created in 1995-1997 it was developed and improved by NPO Almaz and now offered to the export market."

Performances (S300 PMU)

  • Range: Aerodynamic target 5–90 km
  • Range: Ballistic targets 35 km
  • Height defeat: vs. Aerodynamic target 0.025–27
  • Maximum target speed in m/s: 1,150-1,300
  • Maximum speed in m/s: 2,000
  • Number of simultaneously guided by one unit: 12
  • Number of simultaneously engaged targets by single unit: 6
  • Mass, rocket, kg: 1,400–1,600
  • Warhead weight, kg: 150
  • Minimum time between launches: 3–5 sec.
  • Set up time and clotting time of starting: 5 min.

5P85-1 specifications: MAZ 543


S-300P Tel 5327 detail
Part of the wide family of 8x8 heavy duty military trucks designed in the 1960s primarily as a multipurpose platform, TEL and RL platform, radar, chemical, mine warfare and other use. The MAZ-543 was also called MAZ-7310 "Uragan" and comprised the MAZ-543 (1965) general purpose platform, MAZ-543A with extra payload and variant MAZ-7310 with 4WD MAZ-8385 trailer for Siberian service, but also the MAZ-543M (BM-30 Smerch), MAZ-543P with the 9K72 Elbrus launcher (9P117), and for SAMs, the MAZ-7910 carying the S-300 PMU-2, and the MAZ-74106 with the air search radar 64N6 BIG BIRD (future article). But also the 6x6 MAZ-547, coupled with the with RSD-10 Pioneer IRBM an the Chinese 8x8 WS2400.

The MAZ 543A/543M were built with fiberglass side cabins, different front radiator and cab split, plus different cabin interiors. Wheelbase was 7.7 meters, top speed 60 kph with 80 liters per 100 km. These two twin-door cabins left and right had excellent visibility and intercom. The more evolved MAZ-7910 had not right cabin, only left.
Their MAZ V12 engine had a 38.8 liter capacity for "just" 525 horsepower, independent torsion bar suspension and telescopic shock absorbers, centralized tire inflation system. On the 7910, wheelbase was increased to 7,7 meters with a 2,375 mm track.

5P85D/S/PMU specifications: MAZ 7910


SA-20 missile complex.
In 1974, MAZ made the pipe hauler MAZ 7910 prototype, with production starting in 1976 with its single cabin. Overall dimensions 11,450 x 3,050 x 3,550 meters and curb weight was 23,300 kg. Payload was 18 tonnes and top speed under 60 kph. It used the D12A-525 V-12 water-cooled diesel engine also rated at 525 hp at 2,100 rpm, giving it a 26.25 hp/metric ton power to weight ratio, Maximum Speed Off-Road of just 30 kph, and 800 km range;

5P85TE2:

Also close to the 5P85SE2 it was built by Almaz-Antey Concern and introduced April 28, 2007 as a 10x10 wheeled missile launching vehicle associated with the S-400 long-range air defense system, carrying each four 48N6E2 or 48N6E3 surface-to-air missiles and/or two 40N6E very long-range surface-to-air missiles or even 12 9M96E or 9M96E2 high maneuverable missiles. 48N6E and 9M96E could be operated in combination, and each launcher could accomodate three 9M96E missiles.

5P85 Variants

5P85-1: Initial TEL based on the MAZ-543
5P85D: "slave TEL" Based on the improved MAZ-7910, for the S-300PM
5P85S: "master TEL" also based on the MAZ-7910 for the S-300PS
5P85SE/TE: MAZ-7910 based vehicle for the 9M96E1 (S300 PMU-1)
5P85TE2: MAZ-7910 based vehicle for the 9M96E2 (S300 PMU-2)
MAZ-74106: Air search radar vehicle for the 64N6 BIG BIRD/S-300PM.
HQ-15: Chinese PLA variant of the second

5P85 Operators


Slovak S-300PS and 5V55R

Ukrainian vehicles in the 2014 Kiev parade



Kazakh S-300 TEL

S-300 missiles on a 6x6 Iranian trailer truck, Tehran parade, army day

favorit missile system at the Military parade in Baku 2013

Azeri 2020 Parade, S-300PMU2, 5P85TE2 trucks

5p85 Vehicle in Azerbaidjan

Armenian TEL

Slovak S-300 TEL
The vehicle was deployed in the ex-soviet republics, and many other countries such as Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaidjan, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Cyprus, Greece, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Slovakia, Russia, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Others are debated like North Korea (They conducted tests with a system called 'KN-06'), Syria (An order for 6 systems signed in 2010), Venezuela (2 battalions of S-300VM "Antey-2500" delivered May 2012). Czechoslovakia had a single batallion, later passed on to Slovakia. East Germany operated at least two batallions but returned them to the USSR before re-unification.

5P85 In combat


Unit structure
Since it's inception in 1978, this weapons system was provided organically to armoured divisions as a means of long range air protection, and each S-300 battalion includes up to 12 5P85ME missile launching vehicles, grouped by three vehicles each with a CiC vehicle. Each batallion also includes a support vehicle and several tracked control vehicles for low and high/long range altitude detection and a coordination CiC vehicle. By 1991- 1993 ballistic missiles were shot down in exercises, with 90% success. It was also shown able to shot down an UAV at 4.6 km and (simulated) a strategic bomber at 186 km. It could be also launch as a tactical ballistic missile up to 120 km, spraying on target up to 19,000-36,000 fragments depending on the type.



Deployed first in the Moskva Oblast, this weapons system was soon deployed mostly in western-based units and some Warsaw pact countries as well. A system on the march consists of the following vehicles:
-40V6M/M1/M2 mast assemblies for HF and TTR
-ChMAP/5P85-1 semi-trailer with 4 missile tubes for S-300P
-F-9 shelter unit for radar operators (S-300P/PM)
-5P85T trailer (towed by KRAZ-260 truck) with 4 missile tubes for S-300PM
-5P85SU TEL with 4 missile tubes and command post for S-300PMU
-5P85DU TEL with 4 missile tubes for S-300PMU
-1T12-2M site survey vehicle
-5T58 missile transport vehicle
-22T6 loading vehicle
-Baikal-1 command vehicle
-30N6 mounted on MAZ-543M heavy truck for S-300PMU

The system was deployed with the 5P85 TEL truck in Abkhazia in 2008, and famously all along the Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war, 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and recently during the 2022 invasion of Ukraine were two were lost according to OSINT. The S-300 had been used with moderate success on both sides. Ukraine operated in the 2010s the S-300PT, S-300PS, S-300PMU, S-300V1 but only six systems were operational.

Read More/Src

astronautix.com
The 5p85TE2 trailer truck on armyrecognition.com
The 5p85SE on armyrecognition.com
5p85PMU-1 armyrecognition.com
5p85PMU on armyrecognition.com
The 5p85SU1 on armyrecognition.com
.srbijadanas.co
In Greek service
SA-10 Grumble tech (FR) pdf
rosbalt.ru/
missilery.info s300pmu
missilery.info s300v
The 48N6 missile on deagel.com
The 5p85 TEL on deagel.com
MAZ-7310 family
wiki S300 weapons system
CC photos
oryxspioenkop.com list of destroyed russian equipment OSINT

Videos

S-300 - Russian Long Range Air Defence Missile System
What is the S-300? A Detailed Look
S-300 live-fire drills - combat approved
3 reasons Russia is using the S300 for land attack in Ukraine
Author's Renditions
Basic MAZ-543
Basic MAZ-543 on which were based in the S-300P TEL 5P85-1

Camouflaged 5P85D
Camouflaged 5P85D, 1980s

Basic green 5P85S
Basic green 5P85S "master" TEL in the late 1980s

5P85DU TEL
5P85DU TEL in the 1990s

5P85TE2
5P85TE2


Ukrainian 5P85S in the 2014 parade in Kiev

Gallery


5P55_ЗРК_S-300P

ZRS_S-300PS_2008

S-300PMU2_64N6E2-radar

Uklrainian-preserved-ZRS_S-300V1_2007

Moscow-Parade-2009_S300PMU

Full-S-300PMU2_complex

AirDefenseExercise-2016-05-5P85-rear

50th anniversary of PRC s300 truck trailer

Bulgarian_sa-10_launcher















Command-Exercise-Air-Defense-2017-radar-vehicle

5P85D-414th_Guards_Anti-Aircraft_Rocket_Regiments_S-300PS_Tiksi-2020




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allied ww2 Allied ww2 Vehicles

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Sd.Kfz 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were half-tracks designed just before the war as prime movers, to carry supplies, ammunition, personal, and tow artillery. Many were also converted during the war as armored versions carrying AA FLAK guns (Flakvierling, 37 mm, or the legendary 88 mm Rheinmetall als used as tank hunters), or were converted as nebelwerfer (rocket launching armored vehicles). They were built by Hanomag, Steyr, Mercedes-Benz, Bussing and many other manufacturers until 1945, over 20,000 half-tracks.

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-Beute Ford model BB
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italy ww2 Italian Military trucks
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-ОМ-32 Autocarretta da Montagna
-ОМ-36DM
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-SPA CL39
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Med. Trucks (Autocarro Medio)
-Alfa Romeo 430RE
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-Breda Dovunque-41
-Bianchi Miles
-Ceirano-50СМ
-FIAT-626 NM
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-Isotta Fraschini D80
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-SPA Dovunque-41
-SPA AS.37
-SPA-38R
-Autocarro Dovunque SPA 41/42

H. Trucks (Autocarro Gigante)
-FIAT-633NM
-FIAT-634N
-FIAT-666
-Fiat 661
-Lancia Ro
-Lancia 3Ro
-Lancia EsaRo
-ОМ Taurus
-ОМ Titano
-Autocarreta Mod.35
-Autocarri Unificati Ursus

italy ww2 Artillery tractors
-Breda 51
-Breda 52
-Breda 61 (licenced SdKfz-7)
-Fiat-SPA T.L.37
-Pavesi Р4.31 (L140)
-Fiat 727 - half-track artillery tractor
-SPA TM40 - wheeled artillery tractor

italy ww2 Staff Cars -Alfa Romeo 6С2500 Coloniale
-Fiat 508M/CM Ballila
-Fiat 1100 (1937) (Balilla-1100 Coloniale)
-Lancia Aprilia Coloniale
-Bianchi VM 6C
-Fiat 2800 CMC

italy ww2 Motorcycles
-Benelli 500 M36/VLM
-Bianchi Supermil 500
-Gilera 500 LTE
-Moto Guzzi Alce/Trialce
-Volugrafo Aermoto 125
Japan ww2 IJA/IJN ww2 vehicles
-Toyota 4x4 Su-Ki (Amphibious truck)
-Isuzu Type 94 truck
-Type 94 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 95 Mini-truck
-Type 97 4-Wheeled Truck
-Type 1 6-Wheeled Truck
-Type 2 Heavy Truck
-Toyota KB/KC Truck
-Nissan 80 Truck
-Nissan 180 Truck
-Amphibious Truck "Su-Ki"

Japan ww2 Tractors
-Type 92 5 t Prime Mover "I-Ke"
-Type 98 6 t Prime Mover "Ro-Ke"
-Type 92 8 t Prime Mover "Ni-Ku"
-Type 95 13 t Prime Mover "Ho-Fu"
-Type 94 4 t Prime Mover "Yo-Ke"
-Type 98 4 t Prime Mover "Shi-Ke"
-Type 96 AA Gun Prime Mover
-Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier
-Type 98 Half-tracked Prime Mover "Ko-Hi"
-Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
-Experimental Heavy Gun Tractor Chi-Ke
-Experimental Crawler Truck
-T G Experimental Crawler Truck
-Fordson Prime Mover
-Pavessi Gun Tractor
-50 hp Gun Tractor
-Komatsu 3 ton Tractor
-Light Prime Mover
-Clarton Prime Mover
-Holt 30

Japan ww2 Staff cars
-Toyota AA/AB/AC
-Type 93 6/4-Wheeled Passenger Car
-Type 95 Passenger Car "Kurogane"
-Type 98 Passenger Car
-Model 97 Nissan Staff Car, Nissan 70

Japan ww2 Motorcycles
-Rikuo Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 97 Motorcycle
-Rikuo Type 93 side car

Japan ww2 Misc.
-Type 94 Ambulance
-Type 94 Repair Vehicle

Cold War

Section pending completion.
MAZ-543 * GAZ 67B * GAZ/UAZ-69 * ZIL-131 * GAZ 66 * KrAZ-214 * KrAZ-255 * KrAZ-260 * KZKT-7428 * MAZ-535 * MAZ-537 * MAZ-7310 * Ural 375 * URAL 4320 * ZIL-135 * ZIL-157 * ZIL-6

Mercedes Standard 4.5L * Unimog 404 2.5 standard
Willys Jeep CJ series * Jeep M606 * Jeep M38A1 * Jeep M170 * M151 Mutt * M422 Mighty Mite * CJ V-35(/U) * M274 4x4 "Mule" * M37 Series 4x4 "Power Wagon" * M35 Series 6x6 * M54 Series 6x6 * M123/M125 6x6 * M715 series 4x4 * M561 6x6 "Gamma Goat" * M656 Series 8x8 * M880 series 4x4 * M809 series 6x6 * M520 4x4 "Goer" * M915 series 6x4 * M911 C-MET 8x6 * CUCV M1008 4x4 * HMMWV 4x4 * M939 Series 6x6 * HEMTT M977 8x8
Land-Rover * Bedford RL * Bedford TK * Bedford KM * Bedford TM * AEC Militant * Austin K9 * AEC Mandator TEL
IFA G5
Nissan 2.5 Truck
Wanshan W-2600 * Beijing BJ212 * Dongfeng EQ240/EQ2081 * Dongfeng EQ245/EQ2100 * Dongfeng EQ2050 * FAW MV3 * Hanyang HY4260 * Hanyang HY4330 * HTF5680A1 * SFQ2040 LieYing * Xiaolong XL2060 * Jiefang CA-30 * NJ2045/2046 * Shaanxi SX2190 * Shaanxi SX2150 * TA580/TAS5380 * TA5450/TAS5450 * TAS5500 * TAS5570 * TAS5690 * Type 82 truck * WS2300 * WS2400 * WS2500 * WS2600 * WS21200 * WS51200
ACMAT VRLA * ACMAT VT4 * ACMAT ALTV * Hotchkiss M201/203 * Delahaye VLR * Peugeot P4 * Berliet GBC 8 KT * Berliet TBU * Berliet TF * Renault GBC 180 * Renault G290 * Renault CBH 385 * Renault Sherpa 5 * CAESAR SPG (Renault Sherpa 10) * MFRD * Renault Kerax * Renault 420 fuel truck * SUMB MH600BS * Renault SAMP-T * TRM-10000 * TRM-2000 * TRM-4000 * TRM-700-100
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